The Delaware Geological Survey released a new technical report entitled “Hydrogeology of a Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware” which was prepared by A. Scott Andres and Changming He of the Delaware Geological Survey, Edward Walther of the South Water Management District, Florida, and Müserref Türkmen of the Izmir Water and Sewerage Administration, Turkey, and DGS Bulletin 21B documents the results of a detailed study of groundwater and hydrogeology at a rapid infiltration basin system.
In 2000, A. Scott Andres, a senior scientist and hydrologist with the Delaware Geological Survey, released findings that disclosed a unique formation at the swamp.
In geologic time, the swamp isn't that old.
It formed about 22,000 years ago in a fresh-water, cold-climate marsh and boreal forested swamp.
Organic matter started building up and a cold wind blew in silt, clay and sand from nearby dunes and surrounding high ground. More sediment washed in with runoff from streams.
Thin sheets of sand likely spread during times when the land thawed.
Conditions began to change about 10,000 years ago as the climate warmed, forming a temperate-forested swamp, bog and flood plain.
There was more erosion and movement of organic-rich sediment to the fresh-water swamp. Today, it's considered the northernmost Southern forest on the East Coast.
Scott Andres of the Delaware Geological Survey and Holly Michael, assistant professor of geological sciences, participated in 2011 National Ground Water Association (NGWA) Groundwater Summit and were co-organizers of the session titled "Submarine Discharge of Groundwater and Nutrients into Estuaries and Oceans," May 3, Baltimore.