This report deals with fluctuations in nine observation wells during the period 1960 - 1966. These wells are part of a state-wide ground-water monitoring network and are located in areas of little or no pumping. Eight of the wells respond to water-table conditions; the ninth well appears to reflect artesian conditions.
Although precipitation throughout Delaware was generally below average during the period covered by this report, annual average water levels declined very little in the wells reported on here. There is some evidence, however, for a lowering of water-table levels by three to four feet during the period 1960 - 1962.
At present, Delaware has an abundance of water for the foreseeable future, but is already faced with water problems in some municipalities. These can only be resolved satisfactorily through complete evaluation of the State's water resources and the establishment of a coordinated program of water management.
Recent erosion along the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal has exposed an unusually rich Upper Cretaceous fossiliferous outcrop at the Biggs Farm, near the eastern end of the Canal. Some III species of mollusks representing 72 genera have been identified. Coelenterata, Porifera, Annelida, Brachiopoda, Crustacea, and a few fragmentary vertebrate remains have also been found. Five species are being described as new, and there are 54 new records for the Cretaceous of Delaware.
The preservation of the material suggests that the animals lived on a sandy bottom in water between 50 and 100 feet in depth, possibly near the mouth of a bay.
Inasmuch as there is a mixing of some species characteristic of the Matawan Group and other species characteristic of the Monmouth Group, it is believed that the fauna at this locality lies near the Matawan-Monmouth boundary, perhaps in the lower part of the Monmouth Group.
A series of cores was obtained from a boring in the sediments of the Delaware River near the Delaware Memorial Bridge. The mineralogy, texture and palynology of these samples have been studied. The sedimentary and palynological records suggest that the Delaware River, while swollen with Wisconsin meltwaters, deepened its channel and that subsequent flooding of the mouth of the stream by rising sea waters initiated the deposition of estuarine silts in post-Wisconsin time.
Considerable quantities of natural gas are used in Delaware; however, there are no facilities for the storage of large quantities of gas within the state. All the gas is "piped in" and distributed by the local public utility companies. These companies are interested in the possibilities for the underground storage of natural gas, but there are no obvious underground reservoirs such as depleted oil or gas fields.
The uppermost Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary planktonic Foraminifera obtained from cores taken in a deep well near Dover, Delaware are studied. The Cretaceous foraminifers are of the Heterohelix-Globotruncana assemblage and are probably of late Maescrichtian age. The Danian Globorotalia compressa - Globigerinoides daubjergensis zone lies immediately above. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is at a depth of approximately
980 feet and lies within a gray, glauconitic silt.
RI3 Wells for the Observation of Chloride and Water Levels in Aquifers that Cross the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal
Three test wells were drilled near the banks of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, in aquifers formed by sand beds in two geologic units, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy formation, which crop out along the sides and across the bottom of the canal. The canal carries tidal flow from the Delaware River to and from Chesapeake Bay. The purpose of the wells was to determine whether salt water from the canal has entered the water-bearing beds of these formations, and to determine the head of water in them. It was found that the sands contain fresh water, uncontaminated, and that apparently there was discharge of fresh water from the aquifers to the canal under low head, at least from the winter of late 1955 through early autumn 1957.