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Site content related to keyword: "Delaware"

SP7 Selected Fossil Collecting Locations in Delaware and Minerals in Delaware

SP7 Selected Fossil Collecting Locations in Delaware and Minerals in Delaware

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SP5 Geology and Earth Resources of Delaware

SP5 Geology and Earth Resources of Delaware

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Delaware's Water Budget

In Delaware local rainfall, approximately 40" to 44" per year, renews part or all of our water supply on a regular basis. However, not all of the rain that falls is available for use.

Glauconite (Greensand)

Glauconite (Greensand)

Greensand is composed primarily of the mineral glauconite -- a potassium, iron, aluminum silicate. In some Delaware greensands, the glauconite content exceeds 90%. The remaining 10% is mainly quartz. In the past, greensand was used in Delaware as an inexpensive fertilizer. The only active greensand mine in the U.S. today is in New Jersey. Once mined, greensand is dried and used as a soil conditioner. Greensand is also used in water softeners primarily to remove iron from the water. Recent research has shown that greensand has the potential for use as a filter of heavy metals from industrial waste water and landfill leachates.

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What is a fossil?

What is a fossil?

If you think you may have found a Delaware dinosaur or any unusual fossil, the scientists at the Delaware Geological Survey at the University of Delaware, Newark campus would like to see it. It could provide important information on the geologic history of the First State.

Natural Hazards in Delaware

Hurricane Floyd - 1999

Natural hazards are those events in the physical environment that present risks to human life or property. The DGS identifies and investigates natural hazards to help understand the earth systems that present the hazards and determine strategies to prepare for or mitigate the risks. We are active in advising emergency management agencies on natural hazards, and are included in the Delaware Emergency Operations Plan as an agency having a vital role in dealing with floods, northeaster/extratropical storms, droughts, earthquakes, sinkholes, and dam failures.

Delaware Geological Survey Digital Data Preservation

The goal of this project is consistent with the goals of the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program: to create metadata for geologic data that can populate the National Digital Catalog. Specifically, this project focuses on metadata for the digital photograph holdings of the Delaware Geological Survey and scanning of analog imagery and slides into digital products.

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Evaluation of Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS)

Diagram of a Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS)
Project Contact(s):

This study has evaluated pre-treatment and physical and geochemical components of rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS). The project was begun in 2008 with an evaluation of performance of treatment plants associated with RIBS in Delaware, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and New Jersey. Field and simulation evaluations of a RIBS located at Cape Henlopen State Park were completed in 2011. Simulation studies of infiltration and nitrogen cycling in the vadose zone were completed in early 2013. Multiple conference presentations, reports, and articles are now being released.

OFR22 Geologic and Hydrologic Considerations in the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

OFR22 Geologic and Hydrologic Considerations in the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

In view of the possible need for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Delaware under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Delaware Geological Survey has prepared this report to assist the citizens of our State in understanding this complex subject. Emphasis here is on geologic and hydrologic aspects of disposal. Health, social, and economic factors are outside the scope of this report and are not discussed. However, they are very important integral parts of the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and must be considered when selecting suitable disposal sites.

OFR17 A Guide to Information on Benchmarks in Delaware

OFR17 A Guide to Information on Benchmarks in Delaware

To conduct an elevation survey, a surveyor needs a starting point for which the exact elevation above mean sea level is known. These starting points are called benchmarks. State and federal agencies install benchmarks throughout every State, creating a network of elevation points which covers the entire continental United States. These benchmarks are considered to be permanent, and usually consist of a brass, bronze, or aluminum disc about 4 inches in diameter mounted in a cement post or in a drill hole in a permanent foundation. Each benchmark also has the installing agency's name and an identification number stamped into it. In December of 1980 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allotted the State of Delaware funds to determine the number and condition of federal benchmarks and other elevation reference control points. The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), contained within FEMA, requires accurate flood surveys of property in flood-prone areas. An extensive and accurate benchmark network throughout the State is needed to help meet these needs.

OFR16 Geologic and Hydrologic Aspects of Landfills

OFR16 Geologic and Hydrologic Aspects of Landfills

In the United States more than 3.5 billion tons of solid waste are generated annually. Of this, more than 2 billion tons are agricultural waste, such as manure and crop waste. Almost 300 million tons are generated by commercial and industrial activities and municipalities, and another 1.1 billion tons are attributed to various mining operations (Vaughan, 1969). Increasing amounts of solid waste have had detrimental effects on environmental quality. It has become necessary to reprocess and reuse some, and to provide safe and environmentally acceptable ways of disposing of the remaining waste in properly constructed landfills. Pollution brought about by improperly constructed landfills may be very severe. For example, the contaminants generated by the waste at the old, abandoned Army Creek Landfill, New Castle County, Delaware, were so widespread that the situation received national attention. General and sincere concern expressed by many citizens of our State has prompted the Delaware Geological Survey to prepare this report. The report explains the functioning of a landfill, problems improperly constructed landfills may cause, and the geologic and hydrologic aspects that have to be considered in selecting a suitable disposal site for solid waste. The report does not contain discussions of other important factors, such as social impact, transportation, and specific health hazards, that must also be considered.

OFR15 Geologic Aspects of Disposal of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste

OFR15 Geologic Aspects of Disposal of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste

This report was prepared to provide a simple but comprehensive overview of programs and concepts of highly radioactive waste disposal. This report is not based on original research, but was prepared from data and information reported in voluminous publications of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

OFR13 Delaware's Extractive Mineral Industry

OFR13 Delaware's Extractive Mineral Industry

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the mining industry of Delaware as an essential component of a growing economy. The industry, particularly in sand and gravel mining, must deal with uneven regulation, land use competition, and environmental pressures. It is hoped that the information gathered here will assist planning and regulatory agencies as well as an interested general public in evaluating the role of the extractive mineral industry.

OFR10 Preliminary Results of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys off Delaware's Coast

OFR10 Preliminary Results of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys off Delaware's Coast

The nature and occurrence of subsurface resources, whether ground water, minerals, or petroleum, are controlled by the geologic history and framework of any particular area. Several years ago the staff of the Delaware Geological Survey began an informal assessment of the potential resources of southern Delaware and demonstrated the lack of basic data on the deep subsurface in this area. This assessment was later summarized by Benson (1976) with particular emphasis on the possibilities for petroleum occurrence.

OFR9 Geologic Field Trips in Delaware

OFR9 Geologic Field Trips in Delaware

The information contained in this Guidebook was compiled on the occasion of the Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists held in Delaware in June 1977. The Delaware Geological Survey is pleased to have been selected to host this national meeting. The field trip logs were designed to familiarize geologists from across the United States with basic features of Delaware's geology and resources. We have also sought to identify some points of historical and cultural interest that may help the visitor become familiar with our State. Experience has shown that field guides retain their usefulness beyond the event that they initially served. They may assist classes, other groups, and individuals seeking additional information about their physical environment. Therefore, this Guidebook has been published as an Open File Report for public distribution. All users of this information are urged to exercise caution, especially at rock faces and along waterways, and to obtain specific permission for visits from landowners where necessary.

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OFR48 Results of the Domestic Well Water-Quality Study

OFR48 Results of the Domestic Well Water-Quality Study

The Delaware Geological Survey conducted a review of existing ground-water quality data collected from shallow (less than 100 feet deep) domestic water-supply wells and small public water-supply wells (serving fewer than 100 residents) to determine the extent to which toxic and carcinogenic compounds are present in the shallow ground water serving domestic water supply wells. These data were generated by several agencies including the Delaware Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Delaware Division of Public Health Office of Drinking Water, and the Delaware Department of Agriculture Pesticide Management Program.

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OFR42 Catalog of Earthquakes in Delaware

OFR42 Catalog of Earthquakes in Delaware

The occurrences of earthquakes in northern Delaware and adjacent areas of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey are well documented by both historical and instrumental records. Over 550 earthquakes have been documented within 150 miles of Delaware since 1677. One of the earliest known events occurred in 1737 and was felt in Philadelphia and surrounding areas. The largest known event in Delaware occurred in the Wilmington area in 1871 with an intensity of VII (Modified Mercalli Scale). The second largest event occurred in the Delaware area in 1973 (magnitude 3.8 and maximum Modified Mercalli Intensity of V-VI). The epicenter for this event was placed in or near the Delaware River. Sixty-nine earthquakes have been documented or suspected in Delaware since 1871.

OFR39 Basic Data for the Geologic Map of the Seaford Area, Delaware

OFR39 Basic Data for the Geologic Map of the Seaford Area, Delaware

The Seaford area geologic mapping project (Andres and Ramsey, 1995) was conducted by Delaware Geological Survey (DGS) staff and focused on the Seaford East (SEE) and Delaware portion of the Seaford West (SEW) quadrangles (Fig. 1). Data evaluated in support of mapping from these quadrangles and surrounding areas are documented in this report.

OFR5 Removal of Metallic Contaminants from Industrial Waste Waters by the Use of Greensands, A Preliminary Report

OFR5 Removal of Metallic Contaminants from Industrial Waste Waters by the Use of Greensands, A Preliminary Report

The Delaware Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated glauconite-bearing greensand deposits in Delaware for several years. The purpose of this effort is to find possible practical uses for this potentially important mineral resource. This report briefly describes the preliminary results of one phase of the study: application of greensands to the purification of industrial waste waters.

OFR1 A Preliminary Report on Nitrate Contamination of Shallow Ground Waters in Delaware

OFR1 A Preliminary Report on Nitrate Contamination of Shallow Ground Waters in Delaware

Inspection of water analyses on file at the Delaware Geological Survey revealed that 25 percent of the shallow wells yield water with nitrate concentrations approaching or in excess of the Delaware State Board of Health and U. S. Public Health Service limit of 45 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate concentrations greater than 45 ppm seem to be detrimental to the health of infants during their first few months of life; adults drinking the same water are not affected but breast-fed infants of mothers drinking such water may become ill. The illness ("blue baby sickness" or methemoglobinemia) results from the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by nitrite-forming bacteria in the upper part of the digestive tract of some infants and the further conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin which is incapable of transporting oxygen; the result is oxygen starvation. Little is known about the low level effect of undetected methemoglobinemia on infants.

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