OFR45 Characterization of the Potomac Aquifer, an Extremely Heterogeneous Fluvial System in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Delaware
Fluvial sands of the subsurface Cretaceous Potomac Formation form a major aquifer system used by a growing population in the northern Coastal Plain of Delaware. The aquifer is extremely heterogeneous on the megascopic scale and connectivity of permeable fluvial units is poorly constrained. The formation is characterized by alluvial plain facies in the updip section where it contains potable water. While over 50 aquifer tests indicate high permeability, the formation is primarily composed of fine-grained silt and clay in overbank and interfluvial facies. Individual fluvial sand bodies are laterally discontinuous and larger-scale sand packages appear to be variable in areal extent resulting in a labyrinth style of heterogeneity. The subsurface distribution of aquifers and aquitards has been interpreted within a new stratigraphic framework based on geophysical logs and on palynological criteria from four cored wells. The strata dip gently to the southeast, with generally sandy fluvial facies at the base of the formation lapping onto a south-dipping basement unconformity. The top of the formation is marked by an erosional unconformity that truncates successively older Potomac strata updip. Younger Cretaceous units overly the formation in its downdip area. In the updip area, the formation crops out or subcrops under Quaternary sands.The fine-grained facies include abundant paleosols that contain siderite nodules and striking mottling that commonly follows ped faces and root traces. These paleosols may serve as regional aquitards. This geologic complexity poses a challenge for determining the magnitudes and directions of ground-water flow within the aquifer that are needed for making informed decisions when managing this resource for water supply and contaminant remediation.
The Seaford area geologic mapping project (Andres and Ramsey, 1995) was conducted by Delaware Geological Survey (DGS) staff and focused on the Seaford East (SEE) and Delaware portion of the Seaford West (SEW) quadrangles (Fig. 1). Data evaluated in support of mapping from these quadrangles and surrounding areas are documented in this report.
RI37 Stratigraphic Nomenclature of Nonmarine Cretaceous Rocks of Inner Margin of Coastal Plain in Delaware and Adjacent States
Rocks of Cretaceous age deposited in continental and marginal environments, and now found along the inner edge of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, have historically been classified as the Potomac Group and the Potomac, Patuxent, Arundel, Patapsco, Raritan, and Magothy formations. Subdivisions of the Raritan and Magothy formations have also been recognized. Lithologic characteristics and spatial relationships of the units indicate that only the Potomac Formation and the Magothy Formation can be differentiated in northern Delaware. The complex nonmarine deposits originated on an aggrading coastal plain. Their projections into the deeper subsurface on- and offshore will be important in future studies. No changes in terminology are recommended, but careful use of stratigraphic nomenclature is urged in order to avoid confusion, especially in hydrologic applications.
RI36 History of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Mid-Atlantic Region and Delaware's Involvement in the Federal OCS Leasing Program
There has been sporadic exploration for oil and gas in the Mid-Atlantic region for over 50 years. Non-commercial deposits of oil and gas have recently been discovered in the sedimentary rock section of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) 80 miles off the New Jersey-Delaware coast. The oil and gas occurs within entrapment structures in ancient rocks deposited and buried in a deep basin called the Baltimore Canyon trough. This trough forms part of the Coastal Plain and continental shelf geologic provinces on the Atlantic Coast.
This report documents the development of a methodology for mapping ground-water recharge areas in Delaware's Coastal Plain. It is anticipated that the methodology presented herein will evolve as it is applied to other areas in the State and as computerized geographic information systems become more widely available. This report deals with methodology; the recharge area maps generated in the course of the research are available for review at the DGS.
This geologic map shows: (1) distribution of geologic units found at the land surface; (2) updip limit (generally the northern extent) of Miocene and Pliocene geologic units found in the subsurface; and (3) locations of major subsurface faults that affected deposition of the Miocene and Pliocene geologic units. The geologic units shown are defined on their dominant lithologies (i.e., sand, silt, clay) and other characteristics such as presence or absence of shells or other fossils and range of colors.
OFR26 Salinity Distribution and Ground-Water Circulation beneath the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the Adjacent Continental Shelf
The possibility of salt-water encroachment into the aquifers of the Coastal Plain of Delaware from saline-water bodies (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Atlantic Ocean) has received considerable attention (e.g., Sundstrom et al., 1967, 1971, 1976; Woodruff, 1969). These authors have shown that, so far, little encroachment has taken place. It is also known that a large body of highly saline water occurs at depth beneath the Coastal Plain (Upson, 1966; Back, 1966; Brown and Reid, 1976) and the adjacent continental shelf, but no reports have been published about its origin and shape, and the salinity distribution and flow pattern within it. Yet, this saline-water body has a bearing on the development of fresh-water resources throughout Delaware, the feasibility of constructing injection wells for the disposal of liquid wastes, and radioactive waste disposal in the crystalline rocks beneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and upon the occurrence or migration of hydrocarbons (Bredehoeft and Maini, 1981). It is, therefore, important to study this body of saline water.
This map shows the saturated thickness of the Columbia Formation. The Columbia Formation covers most of the Coastal Plain of Delaware. Because it consists primarily of coarse sand, it is important to the hydrology of the area. It is an important groundwater reservoir and in most places water must pass through it to reach deeper units. The water budget of the Columbia Formation also influences runoff and baseflow components of streamflow. The saturated thickness was determined through interpretation of data in publications and files of the Delaware Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and the Water Resources Center of the University of Delaware. The thicknesses shown on the map represent the best judgment of the authors based on available data. Detailed investigations of specific sites will require additional data.
This Bulletin presents the subsurface stratigraphy of the post-Potomac Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of central Delaware, between the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal and Dover. Geophysical log correlations supported by biostratigraphic and lithologic data from boreholes in Delaware and nearby New Jersey provide the basis for the report. The stratigraphic framework presented here is important for identifying subsurface stratigraphic units penetrated by the numerous boreholes in this part of Delaware, particularly those rock units that serve as aquifers, because such knowledge allows for better prediction at ground-water movement and availability. Also, accurate stratigraphy is a prerequisite for interpreting the geologic history of the rocks and for the construction of maps that depict the structure and thickness of each unit.
The Columbia deposits of Delaware form a sheet of sand with a maximum thickness of approximately 150 feet which covers most of the Coastal Plain portion of the State. The dispersal pattern, deduced from foreset dip directions of cross-bedding, indicates that the sediment entered the study area from the northeast, i.e., from the direction of the valley of the Delaware River between Wilmington and Trenton, and spread south and southeast over Delaware.
Sussex County is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Its relatively flat, featureless topography is characterized by two terrace-like surfaces; the lower one rises from sea level to about 40 feet above sea level, and the higher one rises inland from 40 to about 60 feet above sea level. Peculiar landforms of low relief, broad ovals, similar to the "Carolina bays," and to the "New Jersey basins" are common on the sandy flat divides in Sussex County. Hydrologically, they are sites of much ground-water discharge, by evapotranspiration, from meadow and marsh of lush vegetation.
Delaware has an abundant supply of ground water of a quality suitable for most purposes. About 30 million gallons of water a day was pumped from the ground in 1954. It is estimated that this is roughly 1/16 of the optimum yield. This water is derived from nine groups or series of water-bearing units and is obtained from wells which yield as much as 1,100 gallons per minute. Thousands of wells serve agriculture, industry, municipalities, and domestic users. Geographically, Delaware is situated along the Atlantic coast of the United States in two physiographic provinces: the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont is a belt of rolling foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. It is separated from the Coastal Plain by the Fall Line, a narrow zone of rapids or falls along which rivers and creek descend rapidly from the mature valleys of the Piedmont to the sluggish tidal estuaries of the coastal area. The Coastal Plain is a flat or gently undulating plain of relatively low altitude, which borders the Atlantic Ocean and its estuarine embayments.
A two-dimensional digital model was developed to simulate the effects of increased pumping on the Piney Point aquifer in Kent County, Delaware. The calibrated digital model was used to predict water-level declines as the aquifer responded to both changes in the distribution and increases in the quantity of pumping to the year 2000.
Geophysical logging techniques have been used in Delaware for many years as a means of identification and correlation of Coastal Plain formations. Criteria for the recognition of those formations having distinctive types of logs are presented. Formation factors have been calculated using multiple-point resistivity logs, temperature logs, and ground-water quality data and range from 1.2 to 6.8 for various formations underlying the State. Formation factors in turn are used to estimate water quality in later test holes.
Beaverdam Branch, the Nanticoke River, Sowbridge Branch, and Stockley Branch drain small basins in the Delaware Coastal Plain that are characterized by similar climate, topography, geology, and land use. Withdrawals of ground water and surface water are very small, there is little urbanization, and other man-made effects, which include minor regulation on Sowbridge Branch and construction of drainage ditches in the Nanticoke basin, probably have had minimal effect on the natural hydrologic regimen. These are virtually natural-flow streams, which, because of similar basin characteristics, have nearly identical rates of evapotranspiration and runoff. During the 10-year period, 1959-68, precipitation averaged 40-42 inches annually, runoff averaged 16-17 inches annually, and evapotranspiration averaged 23-25 inches annually.
Delaware’s oldest rocks are metamorphic crystalline rocks of the central Appalachian Piedmont Physiographic Province. Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments overlie the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and range in thickness from a feather edge at the Fall Line to approximately 9,000 feet in the southeastern corner of Delaware. Sediments range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene.
The shaded relief image on the left was created using 30-meter resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The DEMs were developed by John Mackenzie, University of Delaware College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Spatial Analysis Laboratory, from rasterized 1992-93 United States Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Line Graph (DLG) hypsography data. He also combined these data with zero-elevation contours extracted from 1989 Landsat TM Band 7 satellite imagery for coastal quadrangles. The image was digitally enhanced using a false sun angle of 45 degrees shining from the northwest to exaggerate the geomorphic features. In reality the Delaware Coastal Plain is not "mountainous," as it looks in this enhanced image. The hydrology layer was created using USGS 30 x 60 minute and 7.5 minute series DLG data. Municipal boundaries were created using the Delaware Municipal Boundary Framework Layer. Both maps are projected in Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 18 (UTM 18) on the North American Datum 1983 (NAD83).
Emphasis is placed herein on the years of Dr. Groot's leadership of the Survey. The remarkable work of James C. Booth in the last century is acknowledged but has elsewhere been entered in history. Some continuing activities of the Survey after 1969 are noted together with comments of an experienced observer; this current period may someday receive the attention of a recorder having the enhanced perspective of time.
The following report of the geological survey of the state of Delaware, conducted in the years 1837 and 1838, embraces all the observations and examinations which were made during the continuance of the survey, including those contained in the first and second annual reports, already laid before the legislature.