rocks

OFR38 Data Report on Rock Cores from Red Mill Road, Harmony Road, Prices Corner, and Newport, Delaware

The Delaware Piedmont is underlain by metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks of Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic age. The rocks have been studied for many years, but because of poor exposure, high-grade metamorphism, and intense deformation, it has been difficult to identify units, understand their stratigraphic relationships to one another, and determine their origin and history; however, northern Delaware occupies a critical position in the central Appalachian Piedmont, and understanding its geology is key to understanding the geology of this region.

B13 Geology, Hydrology, and Geophysics of Columbia Sediments in the Middletown-Odessa Area, Delaware

Columbia sediments in the Middletown-Odessa area are composed of boulders, gravels, sands, silts and clays. These sediments are exposed in four gravel pits where their structures and textures were studied. Subsurface geology was interpreted on the basis of the well-log data from 40 holes drilled in the area of study. Columbia sediments were laid upon a surface made up of the greensands of the Rancocas Formation (Paleocene – Eocene age). The contact between the Rancocas and Columbia Formations is an erosional unconformity.

B3 Marine Upper Cretaceous Formations of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal

In the Coastal Plain of Delaware, the non-marine Cretaceous sands and clays are separated from the Tertiary formations by a series of marine formations of Upper Cretaceous age. The sedimentary and hydrologic characteristics of these formations deserve detailed study because some of them are water-bearing beds. whereas others act as confining beds. A clear understanding of their relative age. and the presence or absence of unconformities is needed for proper correlation with formations found in wells throughout the State. as well as in Maryland and New Jersey.

RI28 Well and Aquifer Tests, Laird Tract Well Field, Newark, Delaware

Well and aquifer coefficients have been determined for a crystalline rock aquifer system that provides part of the water supply of the City of Newark, Delaware. Conventional analytical methods can be used to derive coefficients for crystalline rocks in the Newark area if the limitations of such methods are recognized and if the local hydrologic framework is known.

RI27 Ground-Water Investigations in the Delaware Piedmont for the City of Newark, 1976

Field reconnaissance, geologic mapping, and photogeologic interpretations aided collectively in the identification of 30 potential high-yield well sites in the crystalline rocks of Delaware's western Piedmont. Fracture traces discernable on panchromatic and color infrared photography were identified in the study area. Well locations were selected on individual traces and on fracture trace intersections. Six test wells averaging 468.5 feet in depth were drilled at selected sites.

RI24 Relation of Ground Water to Surface Water in Four Small Basins of the Delaware Coastal Plain

Beaverdam Branch, the Nanticoke River, Sowbridge Branch, and Stockley Branch drain small basins in the Delaware Coastal Plain that are characterized by similar climate, topography, geology, and land use. Withdrawals of ground water and surface water are very small, there is little urbanization, and other man-made effects, which include minor regulation on Sowbridge Branch and construction of drainage ditches in the Nanticoke basin, probably have had minimal effect on the natural hydrologic regimen.

SP16 Generalized Geologic Map of Delaware, Postcard

Delaware’s oldest rocks are metamorphic crystalline rocks of the central Appalachian Piedmont Physiographic Province. Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments overlie the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and range in thickness from a feather edge at the Fall Line to approximately 9,000 feet in the southeastern corner of Delaware. Sediments range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene.

SP23 Earthquake Basics

This report provides a brief overview of the causes of earthquakes, how earthquakes are measured, and a glossary of earthquake terminology.

SP20 Delaware Piedmont Geology

The Red Clay Creek Valley traverses geologic features that have long been recognized as important to science, industry, and history. The reader will note that within the text “Piedmont,” and “Atlantic Coastal Plain” are capitalized. This is because these are formal geologic provinces. The “Fall Line” or “fall zone” is also an important geologic area. The Fall Line is the contact where the hard crystalline rocks of the Piedmont dip under and disappear beneath the sediments of the Coastal Plain.