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Site content related to keyword: "pollution"

Protecting tidal wetlands - UD scientists study tidal flow, sediment movement in Kent salt marsh

Three University of Delaware scientists are studying tidal water flow and sediment movement in a Kent County salt marsh to better understand changes to the marsh ecosystem due to a rising sea level.

DNREC raises capital request - Sixfold hike includes beach, water projects

More money would go to projects that make Delaware cleaner, greener and safer under a mostly no-growth budget outlined Monday by the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. Agency Secretary Collin P. O'Mara asked the Office of Management and Budget for about $35.2 million in general funds for the fiscal year that begins July 1, with health care costs accounting for most of the nearly $2 million increase from the current year.

World-renowned environmental scientists to speak at DENIN opening on October 23, 2009

Francois Morel, Albert G. Blanke Jr. Professor of Geosciences at Princeton University, and William H. Schlesinger, president of the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, will present scientific talks during the official launch of the Delaware Environmental Institute (DENIN) at the University of Delaware's Mitchell Hall in Newark, Del., on Friday, Oct. 23.

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Nanticoke Watershed Water-Quality Database (Data Product No. 05-02)

Nanticoke River

The Nanticoke Watershed Water-Quality Database (NWWWQDB) is used to
store, manage, and retrieve water-quality data generated by the “Nanticoke River
Watershed” project. The database contains information on sampling stations, samples,
and field and laboratory analyses, queries to extract and analyze data, forms to input and
edit data, a main menu to navigate to forms and specific queries, and a few formatted
report templates. The database is in Microsoft Access 2003 format. Table, field, and table
relationship metadata are stored in the database as properties of those objects. The
software's metadata reporting options can be used to view the information.

Delaware Inland Bays Tributary Total Maximum Daily Load Water-Quality Database (Data Product No. 02-02)

Delaware Inland Bays Sampling Locations

The Delaware Inland Bays Water-Quality Database (DIBWQDB) is used to store,
manage, and retrieve water-quality data generated by the “Nutrient Inputs as a Stressor
and Net Nutrient Flux as an Indicator of Stress Response in Delawares’ Inland Bays
Ecosystem” (CISNet) and the “Inland Bays Tributary Total Maximum Daily Load”
(IBTMDL) projects. It contains information on sampling stations, samples, and field and
laboratory analyses, queries to extract and analyze data, forms to input and edit data, a
main menu to navigate to forms and specific queries, and a few formatted report
templates. The database is in Microsoft Access 2003 format. Table, field, and table
relationship metadata are stored in the database as properties of those objects. The
software's metadata reporting options can be used to view the information.

Groundwater affected by development, scientists say

Groundwater is both the source of drinking water and the method of disposing of wastewater, said Scott Andres, hydrogeologist with the Delaware Geological Survey. There is plenty of water to be had, he said, but the challenge is protecting public and environmental health.

RI74 Locating Ground-Water Discharge Areas in Rehoboth and Indian River Bays and Indian River, Delaware Using Landsat 7 Imagery

RI74 Locating Ground-Water Discharge Areas in Rehoboth and Indian River Bays and Indian River, Delaware Using Landsat 7 Imagery

Delaware’s Inland Bays in southeastern Sussex County are valuable natural resources that have been experiencing environmental degradation since the late 1960s. Stresses on the water resource include land use practices, modifications of surface drainage, ground-water pumping, and wastewater disposal. One of the primary environmental problems in the Inland Bays is nutrient over-enrichment. Nitrogen and phosphorous loads are delivered to the bays by ground water, surface water, and air. Nitrogen loading from ground-water discharge is one of the most difficult to quantify; therefore, locating these discharge areas is a critical step toward mitigating this load to the bays. Landsat 7 imagery was used to identify ground-water discharge areas in Indian River and Rehoboth and Indian River bays in Sussex County, Delaware. Panchromatic, near-infrared, and thermal bands were used to identify ice patterns and temperature differences in the surface water, which are indicative of ground-water discharge. Defining a shoreline specific to each image was critical in order to eliminate areas of the bays that were not representative of open water. Atmospheric correction was not necessary due to low humidity conditions during image acquisition. Ground-water discharge locations were identified on the north shore of Rehoboth Bay (west of the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal), Herring and Guinea creeks, the north shore of Indian River, and the north shore of Indian River Bay near Oak Orchard.

RI65 Wellhead Protection Area Delineations for the Lewes-Rehoboth Beach Area, Delaware

RI65 Wellhead Protection Area Delineations for the Lewes-Rehoboth Beach Area, Delaware

Water supply in the rapidly developing Lewes and Rehoboth Beach areas of coastal Sussex County in Delaware is provided by more than 80 individual public water wells and hundreds of domestic wells. Significant concerns exist about the future viability of the ground-water resource in light of contamination threats and loss of recharge areas. As part of Delaware's Source Water and Assessment Protection Program, wellhead protection areas (WHPAs) were delineated for the 15 largest public supply wells operated by three public water systems. The WHPAs are derived from analysis of results of dozens of steady-state ground-water flow simulations. The simulations were performed with a Visual MODFLOW-based 6-layer, 315,600-node model coupled with GIS-based data on land cover, ground-water recharge and resource potentials, and other base maps and aerial imagery. Because the model was operated under steady-state conditions, long-term average pumping rates were used in the model. The flow model includes four boundary types (constant head, constant flux, head-dependant flux, and no flow), with layers that represent the complex hydrogeologic conditions based on aquifer characterizations. The model is calibrated to within a 10% normalized root mean squared error of the observed water table.

RI61 The Occurrence and Distribution of Several Agricultural Pesticides in Delaware’s Shallow Ground Water

RI61 The Occurrence and Distribution of Several Agricultural Pesticides in Delaware’s Shallow Ground Water

In June 1996, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) proposed a regulation to require individual states to develop Pesticide Management Plans (PMPs) to protect their ground-water resources from pesticide contamination. The USEPA designated the predominantly agricultural pesticides atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine as the first five that would require a PMP.

RI52 Quality and Geochemistry of Ground Water in Southern New Castle County, Delaware

RI52 Quality and Geochemistry of Ground Water in Southern New Castle County, Delaware

Water samples were collected from 63 wells in southern New Castle County to assess the occurrence and distribution of dissolved inorganic chemicals in ground water. Rapid growth is projected for the study area, and suitable sources of potable drinking water will need to be developed. The growth in the study area could also result in degradation of water quality. This report documents water quality during 1991-92 and provides evidence for the major geochemical processes that control the water quality.

RI51 Herbicides in Shallow Ground Water at Two Agricultural Sites in Delaware

RI51 Herbicides in Shallow Ground Water at Two Agricultural Sites in Delaware

Several common herbicides used on corn and soybeans were detected in ground water at two agricultural sites in Delaware as part of a study of the distribution of herbicides in shallow ground water and the environmental factors affecting their occurrence.

RI46 Shallow Subsurface Temperatures at Selected Locations in Delaware

RI46 Shallow Subsurface Temperatures at Selected Locations in Delaware

Subsurface temperatures were measured in instrumented boreholes for about one and one-half years at depths down to 10 feet below land surface at four locations in the State. In New Castle County, temperatures were measured periodically in the field about twice a month at three sites, and, in Sussex County, they were automatically recorded every 15 minutes at one site. The depths of interest are generally in the unsaturated zone and are subject to both daily temperature fluctuations and longer seasonal changes.

RI45 Effects of Agricultural Practices and Septic-System Effluent on the Quality of Water in the Unconfined Aquifer in Parts of Eastern Sussex County, Delaware

RI45 Effects of Agricultural Practices and Septic-System Effluent on the Quality of Water in the Unconfined Aquifer in Parts of Eastern Sussex County, Delaware

The unconfined aquifer is a major source of water supply in eastern Sussex County, Delaware. It also is an important source of water for surface-water bodies and deeper, confined aquifers. The aquifer consists mainly of permeable sand and gravel; its shallow water table is susceptible to contamination by nitrate and other chemical constituents associated with agricultural practices and effluent from septic systems.

Evaluation of Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS)

Diagram of a Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS)
Project Contact(s):

This study has evaluated pre-treatment and physical and geochemical components of rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS). The project was begun in 2008 with an evaluation of performance of treatment plants associated with RIBS in Delaware, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and New Jersey. Field and simulation evaluations of a RIBS located at Cape Henlopen State Park were completed in 2011. Simulation studies of infiltration and nitrogen cycling in the vadose zone were completed in early 2013. Multiple conference presentations, reports, and articles are now being released.

OFR22 Geologic and Hydrologic Considerations in the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

OFR22 Geologic and Hydrologic Considerations in the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

In view of the possible need for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Delaware under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Delaware Geological Survey has prepared this report to assist the citizens of our State in understanding this complex subject. Emphasis here is on geologic and hydrologic aspects of disposal. Health, social, and economic factors are outside the scope of this report and are not discussed. However, they are very important integral parts of the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and must be considered when selecting suitable disposal sites.

OFR16 Geologic and Hydrologic Aspects of Landfills

OFR16 Geologic and Hydrologic Aspects of Landfills

In the United States more than 3.5 billion tons of solid waste are generated annually. Of this, more than 2 billion tons are agricultural waste, such as manure and crop waste. Almost 300 million tons are generated by commercial and industrial activities and municipalities, and another 1.1 billion tons are attributed to various mining operations (Vaughan, 1969). Increasing amounts of solid waste have had detrimental effects on environmental quality. It has become necessary to reprocess and reuse some, and to provide safe and environmentally acceptable ways of disposing of the remaining waste in properly constructed landfills. Pollution brought about by improperly constructed landfills may be very severe. For example, the contaminants generated by the waste at the old, abandoned Army Creek Landfill, New Castle County, Delaware, were so widespread that the situation received national attention. General and sincere concern expressed by many citizens of our State has prompted the Delaware Geological Survey to prepare this report. The report explains the functioning of a landfill, problems improperly constructed landfills may cause, and the geologic and hydrologic aspects that have to be considered in selecting a suitable disposal site for solid waste. The report does not contain discussions of other important factors, such as social impact, transportation, and specific health hazards, that must also be considered.

OFR15 Geologic Aspects of Disposal of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste

OFR15 Geologic Aspects of Disposal of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste

This report was prepared to provide a simple but comprehensive overview of programs and concepts of highly radioactive waste disposal. This report is not based on original research, but was prepared from data and information reported in voluminous publications of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

OFR5 Removal of Metallic Contaminants from Industrial Waste Waters by the Use of Greensands, A Preliminary Report

OFR5 Removal of Metallic Contaminants from Industrial Waste Waters by the Use of Greensands, A Preliminary Report

The Delaware Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated glauconite-bearing greensand deposits in Delaware for several years. The purpose of this effort is to find possible practical uses for this potentially important mineral resource. This report briefly describes the preliminary results of one phase of the study: application of greensands to the purification of industrial waste waters.

OFR1 A Preliminary Report on Nitrate Contamination of Shallow Ground Waters in Delaware

OFR1 A Preliminary Report on Nitrate Contamination of Shallow Ground Waters in Delaware

Inspection of water analyses on file at the Delaware Geological Survey revealed that 25 percent of the shallow wells yield water with nitrate concentrations approaching or in excess of the Delaware State Board of Health and U. S. Public Health Service limit of 45 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate concentrations greater than 45 ppm seem to be detrimental to the health of infants during their first few months of life; adults drinking the same water are not affected but breast-fed infants of mothers drinking such water may become ill. The illness ("blue baby sickness" or methemoglobinemia) results from the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by nitrite-forming bacteria in the upper part of the digestive tract of some infants and the further conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin which is incapable of transporting oxygen; the result is oxygen starvation. Little is known about the low level effect of undetected methemoglobinemia on infants.

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