Monitoring our water - Delaware Geological Survey improving groundwater monitoring efforts with new wells, sampling
The complex geologic history of the surficial units of the Harbeson Quadrangle is one of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition related to sea-level fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The geology is further complicated by periglacial activity that produced dune deposits and Carolina Bays scattered throughout the map area.
Delaware Drinking Water at Risk, What you haven't been told about chemicals polluting the aquifer that serves Del., Md., N.J.
OFR45 Characterization of the Potomac Aquifer, an Extremely Heterogeneous Fluvial System in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Delaware
Fluvial sands of the subsurface Cretaceous Potomac Formation form a major aquifer system used by a growing population in the northern Coastal Plain of Delaware. The aquifer is extremely heterogeneous on the megascopic scale and connectivity of permeable fluvial units is poorly constrained. The formation is characterized by alluvial plain facies in the updip section where it contains potable water. While over 50 aquifer tests indicate high permeability, the formation is primarily composed of fine-grained silt and clay in overbank and interfluvial facies. Individual fluvial sand bodies are laterally discontinuous and larger-scale sand packages appear to be variable in areal extent resulting in a labyrinth style of heterogeneity. The subsurface distribution of aquifers and aquitards has been interpreted within a new stratigraphic framework based on geophysical logs and on palynological criteria from four cored wells. The strata dip gently to the southeast, with generally sandy fluvial facies at the base of the formation lapping onto a south-dipping basement unconformity. The top of the formation is marked by an erosional unconformity that truncates successively older Potomac strata updip. Younger Cretaceous units overly the formation in its downdip area. In the updip area, the formation crops out or subcrops under Quaternary sands.The fine-grained facies include abundant paleosols that contain siderite nodules and striking mottling that commonly follows ped faces and root traces. These paleosols may serve as regional aquitards. This geologic complexity poses a challenge for determining the magnitudes and directions of ground-water flow within the aquifer that are needed for making informed decisions when managing this resource for water supply and contaminant remediation.
B18 Clay and Clay-Size Mineral Composition of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Section, Test Well Je32-04, Central Delaware
This study complements Delaware Geological Survey Bulletin No. 17 and deals exclusively with clays and clay-size minerals. The cored section at the location of Je32-04 has been subdivided into 25 clay zones on the basis of major changes in trends and degree of crystallinity of clay minerals. The composition of clay minerals varies from zone to zone. These clay minerals have been identified: kaolinite, berthierine, chlorite, illite, smectite, chlorite/smectite, illite/smectite, glauconite/smectite, and glauconite pellets. Other minerals present in the section include: zeolites (clinoptilolite-heulandite), gypsum, and elemental sulfur.
RI26 Hydraulic Characteristics of the Piney Point Aquifer and Overlying Confining Bed near Dover, Delaware
The hydraulic properties of the Piney Point (Eocene) aquifer and overlying basal silt of the Chesapeake Group (Miocene) were determined by a 23-day aquifer test conducted at the Danner Farm Well Field of the City of Dover, Delaware. During the test, head changes were monitored continuously in the Piney Point aquifer, overlying Cheswold (Miocene) aquifer, and the intervening confining bed.
Forty-eight samples of Delaware clays were collected and tested jointly by the Delaware Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines. Clays potentially useful for face brick are common. The nonmarine Cretaceous Potomac Formation is a potential economic clay at virtually all locations sampled. Some Miocene and Pleistocene clays are also possibilities for brick clays. Other Potomac clays are potential sources for glazed tile, sewer pipe, refractory brick, and stoneware. Coastal marsh clays, frequently containing much organic debris, are potential source material for lightweight aggregate used in lightweight, strong concrete products. Lightweight aggregate has the potential for augmenting dwindling reserves of crushed stone and gravel aggregate.