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Site content related to keyword: "Precambrian"

Geologic History of the Delaware Piedmont

Fig A. Cross section of eastern North America as it may have looked 543 million years ago, active volcano is offshore.

The Delaware Piedmont is but a small part of the Appalachian Mountain system that extends from Georgia to Newfoundland. This mountain system is the result of tectonic activity that took place during the Paleozoic era, between 543 and 245 million years ago. Since that time, the mountains have been continuously eroding, and their deep roots slowly rising in compensation as the overlying rocks are removed. It is surprising to find that although the Delaware Piedmont has passed through the whole series of tectonic events that formed the Appalachians, the mineralogy and structures preserved in Delaware were formed by the early event that occurred between 470 and 440 million years ago, called the Taconic orogeny.

MS2 Structure Contour Map of Pre-Mesozoic Basement, Landward Margin of Baltimore Canyon Trough (North and South Sections)

Structure Contour Map of Pre-Mesozoic Basement, Landward Margin of Baltimore Canyon Trough (North Section)

The structure contour map of pre-Mesozoic basement
indicates the structural complexity of the landward margin of
the Baltimore Canyon trough, especially that shown by the
buried rift basins of probable early Mesozoic age. Information
on depth to basement is important in determining the economic
limit of drilling through overlying rocks in the search for oil
and gas.

Baltimore Gneiss

Pbgn

Granitic gneiss with swirling leucosomes and irregular biotite-rich restite layers is the dominant lithology and constitutes approximately 75 to 80 percent of the exposed rocks. The remaining 20 to 25 percent comprises hornblende-biotite gneiss, amphibolite with or without pyroxene, and pegmatite. Granitic gneiss is composed of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, and microcline. Minor and accessory minerals are garnet, muscovite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and zircon. The hornblende gneiss contains plagioclase, quartz, hornblende, and biotite with/without orthopyroxene. Accessory minerals are garnet, muscovite, clinozoisite, perthitic orthoclase, iron-titanium oxides, sphene, and apatite. Amphibolites are composed of subequal amounts of hornblende and plagioclase with minor quartz, biotite, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene.

OFR38 Data Report on Rock Cores from Red Mill Road, Harmony Road, Prices Corner, and Newport, Delaware

OFR38 Data Report on Rock Cores from Red Mill Road, Harmony Road, Prices Corner, and Newport, Delaware

The Delaware Piedmont is underlain by metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks of Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic age. The rocks have been studied for many years, but because of poor exposure, high-grade metamorphism, and intense deformation, it has been difficult to identify units, understand their stratigraphic relationships to one another, and determine their origin and history; however, northern Delaware occupies a critical position in the central Appalachian Piedmont, and understanding its geology is key to understanding the geology of this region.

GM13 Geologic Map of New Castle County, Delaware

GM13 Geologic Map of New Castle County, Delaware

This map shows the surficial geology of New Castle County, Delaware at a scale of 1:100,000. Maps at this scale are useful for viewing the general geologic framework on a county-wide basis, determining the geology of watersheds, and recognizing the relationship of geology to regional or county-wide environmental or land-use issues. This map, when combined with the subsurface geologic information, provides a basis for locating water supplies, mapping ground-water recharge areas, and protecting ground and surface water. Geologic maps are also used to identify geologic hazards, such as sinkholes and flood-prone areas, to identify sand and gravel resources, and for supporting state, county, and local land-use and planning decisions.

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