Share

First State Geology Newsletter Signup

First State Geology has been the newsletter of DGS for over 25 years.

Click here to signup!

Site content related to keyword: "Miocene"

DGS Geologic Map No. 23 (Seaford West and Seaford East Quadrangles, Delaware) Dataset

DGS Geologic Map No. 23 (Seaford West and Seaford East Quadrangles, Delaware) Dataset

This vector data set contains the rock unit polygons for the surficial geology in the Delaware Coastal Plain covered by DGS Geologic Map Series No. 23 (Seaford West and Seaford East Quadrangles). The geological history of the surficial units of the Seaford East Quadrangle and the Delaware portion of the Seaford West Quadrangle was the result of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition related to the sea-level fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The geology reflects this complex history by the cut and fill geometry of the middle and late Pleistocene deposits into the Beaverdam Formation. The geology is further complicated by periglacial activity that produced dune deposits and the Carolina Bays in the map area, which modified the land surface. Mapping was conducted using field maps at a scale of 1:12,000 with 2-ft contours. Stratigraphic boundaries drawn at topographic breaks reflect detailed mapping using contours not shown on this map. This map is an update of the surficial geology of DGS Geologic Map No. 9: Geology of the Seaford Area, Delaware (Andres and Ramsey, 1995), and is based on new field data in the map area and the mapping of adjacent quadrangles. The purpose of the update is to provide continuity of surficial stratigraphic units in adjacent quadrangles in light of additional data, such as LiDAR data not available in 1995 and revisions to the Quaternary stratigraphy of Sussex County (Ramsey, 2010a). Geologic interpretations of subsurface stratigraphy in Andres and Ramsey (1995), Andres, Ramsey, and Groot (1996), and Andres, Ramsey, and Schenck (1995) have not been revised. Surficial stratigraphic units depicted on this map supersede those of Andres and Ramsey (1995).

RI79 Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Eastern Sussex County, Delaware With Emphasis on Impacts of Spray Irrigation of Treated Wastewater

Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Eastern Sussex County, Delaware With Emphasis on Impacts of Spray Irrigation of Treated Wastewater

This report presents a conceptual model of groundwater flow and the effects of nitrate (NO3-) loading and transport on shallow groundwater quality in a portion of the Indian River watershed, eastern Sussex County, Delaware. Three-dimensional, numerical simulations of groundwater flow, particle tracking, and contaminant transport were constructed and tested against data collected in previous hydrogeological and water-quality studies.

The simulations show a bimodal distribution of groundwater residence time in the study area, with the largest grouping at less than 10 years, the second largest grouping at more than 100 years, and a median of approximately 29 years.

Historically, the principal source of nitrate to the shallow groundwater in the study area has been from the chemical- and manure-based fertilizers used in agriculture. A total mass of NO3- -nitrogen (N) of about 169 kg/day is currently simulated to discharge to surface water. As the result of improved N-management practices, after 45 years a 20 percent decrease in the mass of NO3- -N reaching the water table would result in an approximately 4 percent decrease in the mass of simulated N discharge to streams. The disproportionally smaller decrease in N discharge reflects the large mass of N in the aquifer coupled with long groundwater residence times.

Currently, there are two large wastewater spray irrigation facilities located in the study domain: the Mountaire Wastewater Treatment Facility and Inland Bays Wastewater Facility. The effects of wastewater application through spray irrigation were simulated with a two-step process. First, under different operations and soil conditions, evaporation and water flux, NO3- -N uptake by plants, and NO3- -N leaching were simulated using an unsaturated flow model, Hydrus-1D. Next, the range of simulated NO3- -N loads were input into the flow and transport model to study the impacts on groundwater elevation and NO3- -N conditions.

Over the long term, the spray irrigation of wastewater may increase water-table elevations up to 2.5m and impact large volumes of groundwater with NO3-. Reducing the concentration of NO3- in effluent and increasing the irrigation rate may reduce the volumes of water impacted by high concentrations of NO3-, but may facilitate the lateral and vertical migration of NO3-. Simulations indicate that NO3- will eventually impact deeper aquifers. An optimal practice of wastewater irrigation can be achieved by adjusting irrigation rate and effluent concentration. Further work is needed to determine these optimum application rates and concentrations.

OFR50 Database of Quaternary Coastal Geochronologic Information for the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America (additional information for sites in Peru and Chile)

OFR50 Database of Quaternary Coastal Geochronologic Information for the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America

Open-File Report 50 presents and describes a database of geochronological information for coastal deposits of the US Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as for sites from the Pacific coast of South America. This database represents a synthesis of nearly forty years of study conducted by John F. Wehmiller and students in the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Delaware, as well as many collaborating colleagues. The majority of the chronological information in the database is based on amino acid racemization (AAR) data for fossil mollusks obtained from over 1000 collection sites. These chronological data have been used for various mapping, paleoenvironmental, stratigraphic, sea-level, and tectonic studies. In addition to the database itself, 18 on-line supplements containing information related to sample descriptions, sample and collection site photographs, field notes, supporting or related analytical data, and laboratory publications and technical reports are available. Periodic updates and additions will be made where appropriate. The database will be updated regularly to add new data or to complete entries that are currently blank. The instructions provided with the database indicate the date of the latest revision, as well as all revisions after the first release. Some output data from the Amino Acid Racemization Data Base (AARDB) are available at on-line mapping sites or are posted to the NOAA-World Data Center for archival preservation (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/aar.html). The Journal copy of this report is available through Elsevier at http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S2214242815000170.

Amino Acid Racemization Data Base (AARDB)

Amino Acid Racemization Data  Base (AARDB)

Open-File Report 50 presents and describes a database of geochronological information for coastal deposits of the US Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as for sites from the Pacific coast of South America. This database represents a synthesis of nearly forty years of study conducted by John F. Wehmiller and students in the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Delaware, as well as many collaborating colleagues. The majority of the chronological information in the database is based on amino acid racemization (AAR) data for fossil mollusks obtained from over 1000 collection sites. These chronological data have been used for various mapping, paleoenvironmental, stratigraphic, sea-level, and tectonic studies. In addition to the database itself, 18 on-line supplements containing information related to sample descriptions, sample and collection site photographs, field notes, supporting or related analytical data, and laboratory publications and technical reports are available. Periodic updates and additions will be made where appropriate. The database will be updated regularly to add new data or to complete entries that are currently blank. The instructions provided with the database indicate the date of the latest revision, as well as all revisions after the first release. Some output data from the Amino Acid Racemization Data Base (AARDB) are available at on-line mapping sites or are posted to the NOAA-World Data Center for archival preservation (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/aar.html).

DGS Geologic Map No. 22 (Sharptown, Laurel, Hebron, and Delmar Quadrangles, Delaware) Dataset

DGS Geologic Map No. 22 (Sharptown, Laurel, Hebron, and Delmar Quadrangles, Delaware) Dataset

This vector data set contains the rock unit polygons for the surficial geology in the Delaware Coastal Plain covered by DGS Geologic Map Series No. 22 (Sharptown, Laurel, Hebron, and Delmar Quadrangles, Delaware). The geological history of the surficial geologic units in western Sussex County is that of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition related to the sea-level fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The geology reflects this complex history by the cut and fill geometry of the middle and late Pleistocene deposits into the Beaverdam Formation. The geology is further complicated by periglacial activity that produced dune deposits and Carolina Bays in the map area, which modified the land surface.

GM22 Geologic Map of the Sharptown, Laurel, Hebron, and Delmar Quadrangles, Delaware

GM22 Geologic map of the Sharptown, Laurel, Hebron, and Delmar Quadrangles, Delaware

The geological history of the surficial geologic units in western Sussex County is that of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition related to the sea-level fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The geology reflects this complex history by the cut and fill geometry of the middle and late Pleistocene deposits into the Beaverdam Formation. The geology is further complicated by periglacial activity that produced dune deposits and Carolina Bays in the map area, which modified the land surface. Mapping was conducted using field maps at a scale of 1:12,000 with 2-ft contours. Stratigraphic boundaries drawn at topographic breaks reflect detailed mapping using contours not shown on this map.

Bethany Formation

Tbt

The composition, thickness, and geophysical log signature of the Bethany Formation vary with location and depth. In general, the Bethany Formation is a sequence of clayey and silty beds with discontinuous lenses of sand (Andres, 1986; Ramsey, 2003). The most common lithologies are silty, clayey fine sand; sandy, silty clay; clayey, sandy silt; fine to medium sand; sandy, clayey silt, and medium to coarse sand with granule and pebble layers. Thin gravel layers occur most frequently in updip areas and are rarer in downdip areas. Sands are typically quartzose. Lignite, plant remains, and mica are common, grains of glauconite are rare. In the Lewes area, Ramsey (2003) describes the Bethany Formation as consisting of gray, olive gray, bluish-gray clay to clayey silt interbedded with fine to very coarse sand. Lignitic and gravelly beds are common.

DGS Geologic Map No. 15 (Georgetown Quadrangle) Dataset

DGS Geologic Map No. 15 (Georgetown Quadrangle) Dataset

This vector data set contains the rock unit polygons for the surficial geology in the Delaware Coastal Plain covered by DGS Geologic Map No. 15 (Geologic Map of the Georgetown Quadrangle, Delaware). The geologic history of the surficial geologic units of the Georgetown Quadrangle is primarily that of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition of younger stratigraphic units. The age of the Beaverdam Formation is uncertain due to the lack of age-definitive fossils within the unit but is thought to be between late Pliocene to early Pleistocene in age. Refer to Ramsey, 2010 (DGS Report of Investigations No. 76) for details regarding the stratigraphic units.

To facilitate the GIS community of Delaware and to release the geologic map of the Georgetown Quadrangle with all cartographic elements (including geologic symbology, text, etc.) in a form usable in a GIS, we have released this digital coverage of DGS Geological Map 15. The update of earlier work and mapping of new units is important not only to geologists, but also to hydrologists who wish to understand the distribution of water resources, to engineers who need bedrock information during construction of roads and buildings, to government officials and agencies who are planning for residential and commercial growth, and to citizens who are curious about the bedrock under their homes. Formal names are assigned to all rock units according to the guidelines of the 1983 North American Stratigraphic Code (NACSN, 1983).

GM15 Geologic Map of the Georgetown Quadrangle, Delaware

GM15 Geologic Map of the Georgetown Quadrangle, Delaware

The geologic history of the surficial geologic units of the Georgetown Quadrangle is primarily that of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition of younger stratigraphic units. The age of the Beaverdam Formation is uncertain due to the lack of age-definitive fossils within the unit. Stratigraphic relationships in Delaware indicate that it is no older than late Miocene and no younger than early Pleistocene. Regional correlations based on similarities of depositional style, stratigraphic position, and sediment textures suggest that it is likely late Pliocene in age; correlative with the Bacons Castle Formation of Virginia (Ramsey, 1992, 2010).

MS6 Cross Section of Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits Along the Atlantic Coast of Delaware

Cross Section of Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits Along the Atlantic Coast of Delaware

Exploration for sand resources for beach nourishment has led to an increase in the amount of geologic data available from areas offshore Delaware's Atlantic Coast. These data are in the form of cores, core logs, and seismic reflection profiles. In order to provide a geologic context for these offshore data, this cross section has been constructed from well and borehole data along Delaware's Atlantic coastline from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick Island. Placing the offshore data in geologic context is important for developing stratigraphic and geographic models for predicting the location of stratigraphic units found offshore that may yield sand suitable for beach nourishment. The units recognized onshore likely extend offshore to where they are truncated by younger units or by the present seafloor.

RI75 Stratigraphy and Correlation of the Oligocene to Pleistocene Section at Bethany Beach, Delaware

RI75 Stratigraphy and Correlation of the Oligocene to Pleistocene Section at Bethany Beach, Delaware

The Bethany Beach borehole (Qj32-27) provides a nearly continuous record of the Oligocene to Pleistocene formations of eastern Sussex County, Delaware. This 1470-ft-deep, continuously cored hole penetrated Oligocene, Miocene, and Pleistocene stratigraphic units that contain important water-bearing intervals. The resulting detailed data on lithology, ages, and environments make this site an important reference section for the subsurface geology of the region.

Bryn Mawr Formation

Tbm

Reddish-brown to yellowish-brown silty quartz sand to sandy silt that interfingers with medium to coarse clayey sand with gravel. Sand fraction, where a sandy silt, is fine- to very fine-grained and angular to subangular. Iron-cemented zones are common. Gravel fraction is primarily quartz. Sands are quartzose with minor amounts of weathered feldspar. Opaque heavy minerals form up to 3 percent of the sand fraction. Unit ranges up to 70 ft thick but generally less than 30 ft thick and commonly less than 10 ft thick. Surface forms a distinctive terrace that has elevations between 350 ft and 425 ft, and it overlies saprolite of the Piedmont rocks. No macrofossils have been recovered. Fossil pollen from the York Pit in Cecil County, Maryland (Pazzaglia, 1993; unpublished DGS data) indicate a Miocene age. Owens (1999) considered the unit late Oligocene in Pennsylvania.

Bridgeton Formation

Tbr

Reddish-brown to brown, medium to very coarse, poorly sorted sand to silty quartz sand containing scattered gravel beds. Less than 15 ft thick and underlies a relict terrace flat that has elevations between 170 ft and 180 ft and parallels the present Delaware River. More extensive to the north in Pennsylvania (Owens, 1999; Berg et al., 1980).

RI47 Ages of the Bethany, Beaverdam, and Omar Formations of Southern Delaware

RI47 Ages of the Bethany, Beaverdam, and Omar Formations of Southern Delaware

The microflora of the Bethany formation and the lower part of the Beaverdam Formation is characterized by a Quercus-Carya assemblage, very few non-arboreal pollen, and Pterocarya and Sciadopitys as exotic constituents. This assemblage has much in common with that of the Brandywine Formation of Maryland and the Eastover Formation of Virginia which are of late Miocene or early Pliocene age. The environment of deposition of the Bethany was probably deltaic, and that of the lower Beaverdam fluviatile.

Fish: Phlyum Chordata

Fish: Phlyum Chordata <br>Source:  PBS.org

While sampling the lower Miocene Calvert Formation at the Pollack Farm Site, 30 fossil fish taxa were collected, consisting of 24 cartilaginous and 6 osteichthyes fishes. The fossils found in the lower Miocene bed have similar characteristics to an equally aged Formation in southern Delaware suggesting deposition occured in a subtropical, shallow-water, near shore environment.

Bivalves: Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia

Mollusca Bivalvia - Miocene Fossils <br>Source:  Wikimedia Commons

Clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops are members to the class Bivalvia (or Pelecypodia). Bivalves have two shells, connected by a flexible ligament, which encase and shield the soft vulnerable parts of the creature. All 15,000 known species of bivalves are aquatic in nature, with close to 80% being marine (saltwater environments).

Snails and Slugs: Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda

Mollusca Gastropoda - Miocene Fossils<br>Source:  Wikimedia Commons

The Class Gastropoda includes the groups pertaining to snails and slugs. The majority of gastropods have a single, usually spirally, coiled shell into which the body can be withdrawn. The shell of these creatures is often what is recovered in a fossil dig. Gastropods are by far the largest class of molluscs, comprising over 80% of all molluscs.

Fossil Sites In Delaware

Fossil sites near the C&D Canal

Delaware offers a few sites for fossil collectors, and the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and the Pollack Farm are the best. Other locations throughout the state also offer good hunting grounds for fossil collectors. Just south of Dagsboro, where Route 113 crosses Pepper Creek, the collector can find young (less than 2 million year old) marine fossils from the Pleistocene Epoch. At the state sand and gravel pit just south of Middletown on Route 896, plant impressions from the Pleistocene may be found.

What is a fossil?

Tusk of Mammut americanum (American mastodon) discovered from the bottom of Delaware Bay after being caught in a scallop dredge. Pleistocene age.

If you think you may have found a Delaware dinosaur or any unusual fossil, the scientists at the Delaware Geological Survey at the University of Delaware, Newark campus would like to see it. It could provide important information on the geologic history of the First State.