Catherine Puckett, USGS ( Phone: 352-377-2469 );
BOZEMAN – Pallid sturgeon come from a genetic line that has lived on this planet for tens of millions of years; yet it has been decades since anyone has documented any of the enormous fish successfully producing young that survive to adulthood in the upper Missouri River basin.
Now, fisheries scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana State University and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have shown why, detailing for the first time the biological mechanism that has caused the long decline of pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River and led to its being placed on the endangered species list 25 years ago.
In a paper published this week in the journal Fisheries, the scientists show that oxygen-depleted dead zones between dams in the upper Missouri River are directly linked with the failure of endangered pallid sturgeon hatched embryos to survive to adulthood.
“This research is a notable breakthrough in identifying the reason why pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River have been declining for so many decades,” said Suzette Kimball, acting director of the USGS. “By pinpointing the biological mechanism responsible for the species’ decline, resource managers have vital information they can use as a focus of pallid sturgeon conservation.”
“We certainly think this is a significant finding in the story of why pallid sturgeon are failing to recruit in the upper Missouri River,” said Christopher Guy, the assistant unit leader with the USGS Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit and the MSU professor who was the lead author on the paper. “We’re basically talking about a living dinosaur that takes 20 years to reach sexual maturity and can live as long as the average human in the U.S. After millions of years of success, the pallid sturgeon population stumbled and now we know why. From a conservation perspective, this is a major breakthrough.”
The study is the first to make a direct link among dam-induced changes in riverine sediment transport, the subsequent effects of those changes on reduced oxygen levels and the survival of an endangered species, the pallid sturgeon.
“This research shows that the transition zone between the freely flowing river and reservoirs is an ecological sink – a dead zone – for pallid sturgeon,” Guy said. “Essentially, hatched sturgeon embryos die in the oxygen-depleted sediments in the transition zones.”
Guy said fisheries biologists long suspected that the Missouri River’s massive reservoirs were preventing hatched embryonic pallid sturgeon from surviving to the juvenile stage. But early attempts to tie the problem to low levels of dissolved oxygen were unsuccessful.
“The reason for that is we hadn’t sampled deep enough,” Guy said. “It wasn’t until we sampled water down at the bottom, where those sediments are being deposited, that we found there was no dissolved oxygen. Because hatched pallid sturgeon embryos are negatively buoyant, they tend to sink into that hostile environment.”
“The lack of oxygen is a function of high microbial activity in the sediment laden area,” said co-author Eric Scholl, a Ph.D. student at Montana State University and a co-author on the study.
Hilary Treanor, an MSU research associate working with Guy, said they were able to show just how hostile these transition zones between riverine environment and reservoir could be to hatched sturgeon embryos.
In experiments at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Fish Technology Center in Bozeman with coauthors Molly Webb, Kevin Kappenman, and Jason Ilgen, Treanor said different aged hatched embryos were treated with water of varying levels of dissolved oxygen. The lowest level they could recreate – 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per liter of water – was still higher than samples pulled from the bottom at the upper end of Fort Peck Reservoir.
At those depleted levels, the hatched sturgeon embryos suffered almost immediately.
“We saw changes in their behavior fairly quickly. They became disoriented and weren’t able to move the way they should have,” Treanor said. “Within an hour we started to see mortality. By the end of the experiment they were all dead.”
"Pallid sturgeon, native to the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, were listed as an endangered species in 1990. The species has a lifespan of as much as a century. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, fewer than 175 wild-spawned pallid sturgeon – all adults – live in the free-flowing Missouri River above Lake Sakakawea. Since 1990, not a single wild-spawned pallid sturgeon is known to have survived to a juvenile, despite intensive searching.
In the past 5 years, researchers identified the most important reason for pallid sturgeon population declines in the Upper Missouri River: the lack of survival of naturally produced hatched sturgeon embryos.
Guy said this most recent study of sturgeon built on research conducted by USGS fisheries biologist Patrick Braaten, which demonstrated not enough available drift distance exists between the reservoirs for hatched pallid sturgeon embryos before entering the reservoirs in the upper Missouri River.
Before dams, hatched pallid sturgeon embryos would drift for hundreds of miles, eventually settling out of the river’s current in areas with low flow where they matured enough to negotiate the river’s flow.
“This team has shown how much we can do when we have a collaboration between MSU, USGS and world-renowned reproductive physiologists Molly Webb and Kevin Kappenman with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,” Guy said. “In the process of doing this research, we’ve trained a dozen MSU graduate students and a number of undergraduate field and lab techs.”
Given what the new research shows about how no oxygen is available to hatched pallid sturgeon embryos, the authors of the paper propose that officials will need to consider innovative approaches to managing Missouri River reservoirs for pallid sturgeon conservation to have a chance. It also could provide some guiding principles for the construction of new dams around the world, Guy said.
EATONTOWN, N.J. -- In the two years and three months since Hurricane Sandy scored a direct hit on New Jersey, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has remained engaged in the recovery effort, providing $6.9 billion to date to help the state recover and rebuild.Language English
SPOKANE, Wash. — In cooperation with the Polish Geological Institute — National Research Institute, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have published a new assessment of copper resources in Poland and Germany. This investigation is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Global Mineral Resource Assessment. The study synthesizes available information on known resources and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with the well-known late Permian (approximately 255 million years old), carbon-enriched shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe.
The ore deposits associated with the Kupferschiefer in Germany and Poland have been mined for over 800 years and are world-famous among geologists because research on these deposits played a significant role in the scientific debates on ore genesis. The largest Kupferschiefer copper deposit occurs in the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area, Poland. It is the largest copper deposit in Europe and one of the largest copper deposits on the Earth.
Most of the known copper resource and almost all of the estimated undiscovered copper resources occur in southwestern Poland and adjacent parts of eastern Germany. Since 1958, about 15 million metric tons of copper have been produced, and about 30 million metric tons of discovered copper remains to be developed. The USGS estimates a mean value of 110 million metric tons of copper may be undiscovered to a depth of 2.5 km below the surface in this area. Most of the undiscovered resource in southwestern Poland would be deeper than 1.5 km, where virgin rock temperatures exceed 50 degrees C (122 degrees F).
In 800 years of mining, about 2.6 million metric tons of copper were produced from Kupferschiefer deposits in east-central Germany. The areas near the deposits in east-central Germany have been well explored; less than one million metric tons of discovered copper remain in identified deposits. Mean undiscovered copper estimates for this area are about 20 million metric tons.
This USGS study supports previous findings by the Polish Geological Institute for the amount of undiscovered copper in Poland. Mean values from the USGS study are remarkably similar to the values estimated by Polish geologists. The USGS study differs from the Polish study in that two different methods are used to probabilistically estimate the amount of undiscovered copper and maps are included to show where undiscovered resources are likely to occur.
The full report, USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5090–U, “Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe,” by Michael Zientek and others, is available online.
Additional USGS mineral resource assessment results and reports, including previous volumes of this publication series, and an estimate of undiscovered copper resource of the world in 2013, are online.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released a convenient and informative new method for the analysis of groundwater and surface-water hydrologic data called the Groundwater (GW) Toolbox. The GIS-driven graphical and mapping interface is a significant advancement in USGS software for estimating base flow (the groundwater-discharge component of streamflow), surface runoff, and groundwater recharge from streamflow data.
The GW Toolbox brings together several analysis methods previously developed by the USGS and Bureau of Reclamation. Each of the methods included with the GW Toolbox use daily streamflow data automatically retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) for more than 26,000 streamgage sites across the United States. In addition to streamflow data, the GW Toolbox facilitates the retrieval of groundwater-level and precipitation time-series data from the NWIS database.
The GW Toolbox will be of use to engineers, academia, and government agencies at all levels for the analysis of many of the water-budget components of a typical watershed. The intensively visual interface will help shed light on water availability and hydrologic trends in response to climate and land-use changes and variability in these watersheds.
The GW Toolbox runs in a Microsoft Windows environment and includes the Base Flow Index (BFI), HYSEP, and PART hydrograph-separation methods to estimate base flow and surface runoff and the RORA and RECESS methods to estimate groundwater recharge.
WASHINGTON – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) today announced it is seeking applicants for its Youth Preparedness Council. The Council supports FEMA’s commitment to involving youth in preparedness-related activities and provides an opportunity for young people to offer their perspectives, feedback and insights on how to help make America more resilient.Language English
NREC extends public comment period through Feb. 16 on renewable Energy Portfolio Standards Cost Cap regulation
NREC extends public comment period through Feb. 16 on renewable Energy Portfolio Standards Cost Cap regulation
WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) seeks experienced individuals who are interested in serving on the National Advisory Council (NAC) to apply. All applications must be received by 5 p.m. ET on Monday, February 16, 2015.Language English
ANCHORAGE, Alaska Melting glaciers are not just impacting sea level, they are also affecting the flow of organic carbon to the world’s oceans, according to new research that provides the first ever global-scale estimates for the storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers.
The research, published in the Jan. 19 issue of Nature Geoscience, is crucial to better understand the role glaciers play in the global carbon cycle, especially as climate warming continues to reduce glacier ice stores and release ice-locked organic carbon into downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems.
“This research makes it clear that glaciers represent a substantial reservoir of organic carbon,” said Eran Hood, the lead author on the paper and a scientist with the University of Alaska Southeast (Juneau). “As a result, the loss of glacier mass worldwide, along with the corresponding release of carbon, will affect high-latitude marine ecosystems, particularly those surrounding the major ice sheets that now receive fairly limited land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon.”
Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers cover roughly 11 percent of the Earth’s land surface and contain about 70 percent of Earth’s fresh water. They also store and release organic carbon to downstream environments as they melt. Because this glacier-derived organic carbon is readily metabolized by microorganisms, it can affect productivity in aquatic ecosystems.
“This research demonstrates that the impacts of glacier change reach beyond sea level rise,” said U.S. Geological Survey research glaciologist and co-author of the research Shad O’Neel. “Changes in organic carbon release from glaciers have implications for aquatic ecosystems because this material is readily consumed by microbes at the bottom of the food chain.”
Due to climate change, glacier mass losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of nearly 17 million tons of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 — equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River.
These estimates are the first of their kind, and thus have high uncertainty, the scientists wrote, noting that refining estimates of organic carbon loss from glaciers is critical for improving the understanding of the impacts of glacier change. The U.S. Department of the Interior Alaska Climate Science Center and USGS Alaska Science Center plan to continue this work in 2015 and beyond with new efforts aimed at studying the biophysical implications of glacier change.
This project highlights ongoing collaboration between academic and federal research and the transformative results that stem from such funding partnerships. Other institutions involved in the research include Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and Florida State University.
The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the USGS Alaska Science Center, and the DOI Alaska Climate Science Center. The Alaska Climate Science Center provides scientific information to help natural resource managers and policy makers respond effectively to climate change.
ATLANTA–Preliminary flood insurance rate maps for Sarasota County, Fla., can be reviewed at three public open houses during the week of January 19, 2015. Flood maps show the extent to which areas are at risk for flooding, and are used to help determine flood insurance and building requirements.Language English
SEATTLE – As Washingtonians deal with the aftermath of severe storms and flooding that occurred a week ago, the recovery process may include a flood insurance claim. There are three steps to file a claim with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP):
- Contact your insurance agent.
- Document your damaged property.
- File a Proof of Loss form within 60 days of the flood.
More details are available at www.FloodSmart.gov.Language English
Division of Fish and Wildlife 2015 calendar features past Delaware Waterfowl and Trout Stamp winners
Newly released US Topo maps for Nebraska now feature trails provided to the USGS through a “crowdsourcing” project operated by the International Mountain Biking Association (IMBA). Several of the 1,376 new US Topo quadrangles for the state now display trails along with other improved data layers such as map symbol redesign and new road source data.
"As an avid cyclist I look forward to exploring the new US Topo maps for bike trails as I plan my trips," said Jim Langtry, National Map Liaison for Nebraska. "I look forward to the expansion of the trail network and hope this encourages the crowdsourcing effort to add and maintain trails for future updates. It would be great to see the Cowboy Trail, the nation’s longest rails-to-trail trek along the northern tier of Nebraska, included on the next update. You can hike, bike, or horseback ride a total of 195 miles on the completed trail from Norfolk to Valentine. Enjoy the small towns along the way, beautiful scenery and pristine air on the Cowboy Trail."
For Nebraska residents and visitors who want to explore the rolling “cornhusker” landscape on a bicycle seat, the new trail features on the US Topo maps will come in handy. The data is provided through a partnership with IMBA and MTB Project. During the past two years, the IMBA has been building a detailed national database of mountain bike trails with the aid and support of the MTB Project. This activity allows local IMBA chapters, IMBA members, and the public to provide trail data and descriptions through their website. MTB Project and IMBA then verify the quality of the trail data provided, ensure accuracy and confirm that the trail is legal. This unique crowdsourcing venture has increased the availability of trail data available through The National Map mobile and web apps, and the revised US Topo maps.
These new maps replace the first edition US Topo maps for Nebraska and are available for free download from The National Map, the USGS Map Locator & Downloader website , or several other USGS applications.
To compare change over time, scans of legacy USGS topo maps, some dating back to the late 1800s, can be downloaded from the USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection
For more information on US Topo maps: http://nationalmap.gov/ustopo/New version of the North Platte, Nebraska US Topo quadrangle: 2014, with orthoimage turned on. (1:24,000 scale) (high resolution image 1.2 MB) 1902 historic version of the North Platte, Nebraska US Topo quadrangle at 1;25,000 scale. (high resolution image 1.8 MB)