EATONTOWN, N.J. -- In the two years and three months since Hurricane Sandy scored a direct hit on New Jersey, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has remained engaged in the recovery effort, providing $6.9 billion to date to help the state recover and rebuild.Language English
SPOKANE, Wash. — In cooperation with the Polish Geological Institute — National Research Institute, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have published a new assessment of copper resources in Poland and Germany. This investigation is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Global Mineral Resource Assessment. The study synthesizes available information on known resources and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with the well-known late Permian (approximately 255 million years old), carbon-enriched shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe.
The ore deposits associated with the Kupferschiefer in Germany and Poland have been mined for over 800 years and are world-famous among geologists because research on these deposits played a significant role in the scientific debates on ore genesis. The largest Kupferschiefer copper deposit occurs in the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area, Poland. It is the largest copper deposit in Europe and one of the largest copper deposits on the Earth.
Most of the known copper resource and almost all of the estimated undiscovered copper resources occur in southwestern Poland and adjacent parts of eastern Germany. Since 1958, about 15 million metric tons of copper have been produced, and about 30 million metric tons of discovered copper remains to be developed. The USGS estimates a mean value of 110 million metric tons of copper may be undiscovered to a depth of 2.5 km below the surface in this area. Most of the undiscovered resource in southwestern Poland would be deeper than 1.5 km, where virgin rock temperatures exceed 50 degrees C (122 degrees F).
In 800 years of mining, about 2.6 million metric tons of copper were produced from Kupferschiefer deposits in east-central Germany. The areas near the deposits in east-central Germany have been well explored; less than one million metric tons of discovered copper remain in identified deposits. Mean undiscovered copper estimates for this area are about 20 million metric tons.
This USGS study supports previous findings by the Polish Geological Institute for the amount of undiscovered copper in Poland. Mean values from the USGS study are remarkably similar to the values estimated by Polish geologists. The USGS study differs from the Polish study in that two different methods are used to probabilistically estimate the amount of undiscovered copper and maps are included to show where undiscovered resources are likely to occur.
The full report, USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5090–U, “Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe,” by Michael Zientek and others, is available online.
Additional USGS mineral resource assessment results and reports, including previous volumes of this publication series, and an estimate of undiscovered copper resource of the world in 2013, are online.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released a convenient and informative new method for the analysis of groundwater and surface-water hydrologic data called the Groundwater (GW) Toolbox. The GIS-driven graphical and mapping interface is a significant advancement in USGS software for estimating base flow (the groundwater-discharge component of streamflow), surface runoff, and groundwater recharge from streamflow data.
The GW Toolbox brings together several analysis methods previously developed by the USGS and Bureau of Reclamation. Each of the methods included with the GW Toolbox use daily streamflow data automatically retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) for more than 26,000 streamgage sites across the United States. In addition to streamflow data, the GW Toolbox facilitates the retrieval of groundwater-level and precipitation time-series data from the NWIS database.
The GW Toolbox will be of use to engineers, academia, and government agencies at all levels for the analysis of many of the water-budget components of a typical watershed. The intensively visual interface will help shed light on water availability and hydrologic trends in response to climate and land-use changes and variability in these watersheds.
The GW Toolbox runs in a Microsoft Windows environment and includes the Base Flow Index (BFI), HYSEP, and PART hydrograph-separation methods to estimate base flow and surface runoff and the RORA and RECESS methods to estimate groundwater recharge.
WASHINGTON – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) today announced it is seeking applicants for its Youth Preparedness Council. The Council supports FEMA’s commitment to involving youth in preparedness-related activities and provides an opportunity for young people to offer their perspectives, feedback and insights on how to help make America more resilient.Language English
NREC extends public comment period through Feb. 16 on renewable Energy Portfolio Standards Cost Cap regulation
NREC extends public comment period through Feb. 16 on renewable Energy Portfolio Standards Cost Cap regulation
WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) seeks experienced individuals who are interested in serving on the National Advisory Council (NAC) to apply. All applications must be received by 5 p.m. ET on Monday, February 16, 2015.Language English
ANCHORAGE, Alaska Melting glaciers are not just impacting sea level, they are also affecting the flow of organic carbon to the world’s oceans, according to new research that provides the first ever global-scale estimates for the storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers.
The research, published in the Jan. 19 issue of Nature Geoscience, is crucial to better understand the role glaciers play in the global carbon cycle, especially as climate warming continues to reduce glacier ice stores and release ice-locked organic carbon into downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems.
“This research makes it clear that glaciers represent a substantial reservoir of organic carbon,” said Eran Hood, the lead author on the paper and a scientist with the University of Alaska Southeast (Juneau). “As a result, the loss of glacier mass worldwide, along with the corresponding release of carbon, will affect high-latitude marine ecosystems, particularly those surrounding the major ice sheets that now receive fairly limited land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon.”
Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers cover roughly 11 percent of the Earth’s land surface and contain about 70 percent of Earth’s fresh water. They also store and release organic carbon to downstream environments as they melt. Because this glacier-derived organic carbon is readily metabolized by microorganisms, it can affect productivity in aquatic ecosystems.
“This research demonstrates that the impacts of glacier change reach beyond sea level rise,” said U.S. Geological Survey research glaciologist and co-author of the research Shad O’Neel. “Changes in organic carbon release from glaciers have implications for aquatic ecosystems because this material is readily consumed by microbes at the bottom of the food chain.”
Due to climate change, glacier mass losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of nearly 17 million tons of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 — equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River.
These estimates are the first of their kind, and thus have high uncertainty, the scientists wrote, noting that refining estimates of organic carbon loss from glaciers is critical for improving the understanding of the impacts of glacier change. The U.S. Department of the Interior Alaska Climate Science Center and USGS Alaska Science Center plan to continue this work in 2015 and beyond with new efforts aimed at studying the biophysical implications of glacier change.
This project highlights ongoing collaboration between academic and federal research and the transformative results that stem from such funding partnerships. Other institutions involved in the research include Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and Florida State University.
The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the USGS Alaska Science Center, and the DOI Alaska Climate Science Center. The Alaska Climate Science Center provides scientific information to help natural resource managers and policy makers respond effectively to climate change.
ATLANTA–Preliminary flood insurance rate maps for Sarasota County, Fla., can be reviewed at three public open houses during the week of January 19, 2015. Flood maps show the extent to which areas are at risk for flooding, and are used to help determine flood insurance and building requirements.Language English
SEATTLE – As Washingtonians deal with the aftermath of severe storms and flooding that occurred a week ago, the recovery process may include a flood insurance claim. There are three steps to file a claim with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP):
- Contact your insurance agent.
- Document your damaged property.
- File a Proof of Loss form within 60 days of the flood.
More details are available at www.FloodSmart.gov.Language English
Division of Fish and Wildlife 2015 calendar features past Delaware Waterfowl and Trout Stamp winners
Newly released US Topo maps for Nebraska now feature trails provided to the USGS through a “crowdsourcing” project operated by the International Mountain Biking Association (IMBA). Several of the 1,376 new US Topo quadrangles for the state now display trails along with other improved data layers such as map symbol redesign and new road source data.
"As an avid cyclist I look forward to exploring the new US Topo maps for bike trails as I plan my trips," said Jim Langtry, National Map Liaison for Nebraska. "I look forward to the expansion of the trail network and hope this encourages the crowdsourcing effort to add and maintain trails for future updates. It would be great to see the Cowboy Trail, the nation’s longest rails-to-trail trek along the northern tier of Nebraska, included on the next update. You can hike, bike, or horseback ride a total of 195 miles on the completed trail from Norfolk to Valentine. Enjoy the small towns along the way, beautiful scenery and pristine air on the Cowboy Trail."
For Nebraska residents and visitors who want to explore the rolling “cornhusker” landscape on a bicycle seat, the new trail features on the US Topo maps will come in handy. The data is provided through a partnership with IMBA and MTB Project. During the past two years, the IMBA has been building a detailed national database of mountain bike trails with the aid and support of the MTB Project. This activity allows local IMBA chapters, IMBA members, and the public to provide trail data and descriptions through their website. MTB Project and IMBA then verify the quality of the trail data provided, ensure accuracy and confirm that the trail is legal. This unique crowdsourcing venture has increased the availability of trail data available through The National Map mobile and web apps, and the revised US Topo maps.
These new maps replace the first edition US Topo maps for Nebraska and are available for free download from The National Map, the USGS Map Locator & Downloader website , or several other USGS applications.
To compare change over time, scans of legacy USGS topo maps, some dating back to the late 1800s, can be downloaded from the USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection
For more information on US Topo maps: http://nationalmap.gov/ustopo/New version of the North Platte, Nebraska US Topo quadrangle: 2014, with orthoimage turned on. (1:24,000 scale) (high resolution image 1.2 MB) 1902 historic version of the North Platte, Nebraska US Topo quadrangle at 1;25,000 scale. (high resolution image 1.8 MB)
Advisory Council on Wildlife and Freshwater Fish cancels Jan 14 meeting on wildlife program revenues
VANCOUVER, Wash. — The large landslide that occurred on March 22, 2014 near Oso, Washington was unusually mobile and destructive. The first published study from U.S. Geological Survey investigations of the Oso landslide (named the “SR530 Landslide” by Washington State) reveals that the potential for landslide liquefaction and high mobility are influenced by several factors, and the landslide process at Oso could have unfolded very differently (with much less destruction) if initial conditions had been only subtly different.
A major focus of the research reported this week is to understand the causes and effects of the landslide’s high mobility. High “mobility” implies high speeds and large areas of impact, which can be far from the landslide source area. Because high-mobility landslides overrun areas that are larger than normal, they present a significant challenge for landslide hazard evaluation. Understanding of the Oso event adds to the knowledge base that can be used to improve future hazard evaluations.
Computer reconstructions of the landslide source-area geometry make use of high-resolution digital topographic (lidar) data, and they indicate that the Oso landslide involved about 8 million cubic meters (about 18 million tons, or almost 3 times the mass of the Great Pyramid of Giza) of material. The material consisted of sediments deposited by ancient glaciers and in streams and lakes near the margins of those glaciers. The landslide occurred after a long period of unusually wet weather. Prolonged wet weather increases groundwater pressures, which act to destabilize slopes by reducing frictional resistance between sediment particles.
The slope that failed at Oso on March 22, 2014 had a long history of prior historical landslides at the site, but these had not exhibited exceptional mobility.
The area overrun by the March 22 landslide was about 1.2 square kilometers (one-half square mile), mostly on the nearly flat floodplain of the North Fork Stillaguamish River. Additional areas were affected by upstream flooding along the river, which was partially dammed by the landslide. Eyewitness accounts and seismic energy radiated by the landslide indicate that slope failure occurred in two stages over the course of about 1 minute. During the second stage of slope failure, the landslide greatly accelerated, crossed the North Fork Stillaguamish River, and mobilized to form a high-speed debris avalanche. The leading edge of the wet debris avalanche probably acquired additional water as it crossed the North Fork Stillaguamish River. It transformed into a water-saturated debris flow (a fully liquefied slurry of quicksand-like material) that entrained and transported virtually all objects in its path.
Field evidence and mathematical modeling indicate that the high mobility of the debris avalanche was caused by liquefaction at the base of the slide caused by pressures generated by the landslide itself. The physics of landslide liquefaction has been studied experimentally and is well understood, but the complex nature of natural geological materials complicates efforts to predict which landslides will liquefy and become highly mobile.
Results from a suite of computer simulations indicate that the landslide’s liquefaction and high mobility were very sensitive to its initial porosity and water content. Landslide mobility may have been far less if the landslide material had been slightly denser and/or drier. Computer simulations that best fit field observations and seismological interpretations indicate that the fast-moving landslide crossed the entire 1-km-wide river floodplain in about one minute, implying an average speed of about 40 miles per hour. Maximum speeds were even higher.
Only one individual landslide in U.S. history (an event in Mameyes, Puerto Rico in 1985 that killed at least 129) caused more fatalities than the 43 that occurred in the 2014 landslide near Oso.
The full paper, “Landslide mobility and hazards: implications of the 2014 Oso disaster” by R.M. Iverson et al. is published in the journal, “Earth and Planetary Science Letters” and is freely available online.Oso landslide simulation screen shot. (High resolution image) (Video)
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