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Volunteers needed for seedling potting event at St. Jones Reserve near Dover

DNREC News - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 17:00
DOVER (April 10, 2015)– In honor of Earth Day, volunteers are needed to assist with planting native tree seedlings in pots from 9 - 11 a.m., Saturday, April 25 at the St. Jones Reserve, 818 Kitts Hummock Road, Dover.

Researchers Test Smartphones for Earthquake Warning

USGS Newsroom - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 14:15
Summary: Smartphones and other personal electronic devices could, in regions where they are in widespread use, function as early warning systems for large earthquakes according to newly reported research Crowdsourcing Smartphone Data Could Provide Valuable Advance Notice for People in Quake Zones

Contact Information:

Susan  Garcia, USGS ( Phone: 650-346-0998 ); Deborah Williams-Hedges, Caltech ( Phone: 626-395-3227 ); Jeannie  Kever, UH ( Phone: 713-743-0778 );



Additional contacts:  Alan Buis, JPL 818-354-0474, alan.d.buis@jpl.nasa.gov and Donna Sturgess, CMU-SI 412-551-7436, sturgessd@gmail.com

Note to Editors: This news release is available in Spanish and Chinese.

MENLO PARK, Calif.— Smartphones and other personal electronic devices could, in regions where they are in widespread use, function as early warning systems for large earthquakes according to newly reported research. This technology could serve regions of the world that cannot afford higher quality, but more expensive, conventional earthquake early warning systems, or could contribute to those systems.

The study, led by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey and published April 10 in the inaugural volume of the new AAAS journal Science Advances, found that the sensors in smartphones and similar devices could be used to build earthquake warning systems.  Despite being less accurate than scientific-grade equipment, the GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in a smartphone can detect the permanent ground movement (displacement) caused by fault motion in a large earthquake.

Using crowdsourced observations from participating users’ smartphones, earthquakes could be detected and analyzed, and customized earthquake warnings could be transmitted back to users. “Crowdsourced alerting means that the community will benefit by data generated from the community,” said Sarah Minson, USGS geophysicist and lead author of the study. Minson was a post-doctoral researcher at Caltech while working on this study.

Earthquake early warning systems detect the start of an earthquake and rapidly transmit warnings to people and automated systems before they experience shaking at their location.  While much of the world’s population is susceptible to damaging earthquakes, EEW systems are currently operating in only a few regions around the globe, including Japan and Mexico. “Most of the world does not receive earthquake warnings mainly due to the cost of building the necessary scientific monitoring networks,” said USGS geophysicist and project lead Benjamin Brooks.

Researchers tested the feasibility of crowdsourced EEW with a simulation of a hypothetical magnitude 7 earthquake, and with real data from the 2011 magnitude 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake. The results show that crowdsourced EEW could be achieved with only a tiny percentage of people in a given area contributing information from their smartphones. For example, if phones from fewer than 5000 people in a large metropolitan area responded, the earthquake could be detected and analyzed fast enough to issue a warning to areas farther away before the onset of strong shaking. “The speed of an electronic warning travels faster than the earthquake shaking does,” explained Craig Glennie, a report author and professor at the University of Houston.

The authors found that the sensors in smartphones and similar devices could be used to issue earthquake warnings for earthquakes of approximately magnitude 7 or larger, but not for smaller, yet potentially damaging earthquakes.  Comprehensive EEW requires a dense network of scientific instruments.  Scientific-grade EEW, such as the U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeAlert system that is currently being implemented on the west coast of the United States, will be able to help minimize the impact of earthquakes over a wide range of magnitudes.  However, in many parts of the world where there are insufficient resources to build and maintain scientific networks, but consumer electronics are increasingly common, crowdsourced EEW has significant potential.

“The U.S. earthquake early warning system is being built on our high-quality scientific earthquake networks, but crowdsourced approaches can augment our system and have real potential to make warnings possible in places that don’t have high-quality networks,” said Douglas Given, USGS coordinator of the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System. The U.S. Agency for International Development has already agreed to fund a pilot project, in collaboration with the Chilean Centro Sismológico Nacional, to test a pilot hybrid earthquake warning system comprising stand-alone smartphone sensors and scientific-grade sensors along the Chilean coast.

“The use of mobile phone fleets as a distributed sensor network — and the statistical insight that many imprecise instruments can contribute to the creation of more precise measurements — has broad applicability including great potential to benefit communities where there isn’t an existing network of scientific instruments,” said Bob Iannucci of Carnegie Mellon University, Silicon Valley.

“Thirty years ago it took months to assemble a crude picture of the deformations from an earthquake. This new technology promises to provide a near-instantaneous picture with much greater resolution,” said Thomas Heaton, a coauthor of the study and professor of Engineering Seismology at Caltech.

“Crowdsourced data are less precise, but for larger earthquakes that cause large shifts in the ground surface, they contain enough information to detect that an earthquake has occurred, information necessary for early warning,” said study co-author Susan Owen of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

This research was a collaboration among scientists from the USGS, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the University of Houston, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Carnegie Mellon University-Silicon Valley, and included support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. 

Caltech is a world-renowned research and education institution focused on science and engineering, where faculty and students pursue new knowledge about our world and search for the kinds of bold and innovative advances that will transform our future.

The University of Houston is a Carnegie-designated Tier One public research university recognized by The Princeton Review as one of the nation's best colleges for undergraduate education.

Carnegie Mellon University is a private, internationally ranked university with a top-tier engineering program that is known for our intentional focus on cross-disciplinary collaboration in research.

Managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has active programs in Earth science, space-based astronomy and technology development, and manages NASA’s worldwide Deep Space Network.

Crowdsourced Earthquake Warnings. Cell phones can detect ground motion and warn others before strong shaking arrives. Base map originally created by NASA. Artwork credit: Emiliano Rodriguez Nuesch with Pacifico. (High resolution image)

Científicos ponen a prueba los teléfonos móviles inteligentes para la advertencia de terremotos

USGS Newsroom - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 14:00
Summary: Los teléfonos móviles y otros dispositivos electrónicos personales podrían ayudar en las regiones donde se encuentran en uso generalizado, y pueden funcionar como sistemas de alerta para terremotos mayor según la nueva investigación científica recien publicada Crowdsourcing los teléfonos móviles podrían proporcionar datos valiosos y notificación avanzadas para habitantes viviendo en zonas de terremotos

Contact Information:

Susan Garcia, USGS ( Phone: 650-346-0998 ); Deborah Williams-Hedges, Caltech ( Phone: 626-395-3227 ); Jeannie  Kever, UH ( Phone: 713-743-0778 );



Contactos adicionales:  Alan Buis, JPL 818-354-0474 alan.d.buis@jpl.nasa.gov, Donna Sturgess, CMU-SI 412-551-7436 sturgessd@gmail.com

MENLO PARK, California — Los teléfonos móviles y otros dispositivos electrónicos personales podrían ayudar en las regiones donde se encuentran en uso generalizado, y pueden funcionar como sistemas de alerta para terremotos mayor según la nueva investigación científica recien publicada. Esta tecnología podría se utíl en regiones del mundo que no tienen los recursos económicos necesarios para sostener un sistema de calidad alta de alerta temprana, que es mas costosas, y mas convencional y que tambien podría contribuir a otras sistemas.

El estudio, dirigido por científicos del Servicio Geológico de Los Estados Unidos (USGS) y publicado el 10 de abril en el volumen inaugural de la nueva revista AAAS Science Advances, encontró que los sensores en los teléfonos móviles y dispositivos similares se podrían utilizar para construir sistemas de EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System). A pesar de ser menos precisos que los instrumentos científicos, los receptores GPS (Global Positioning System; sistema de posicionamiento global) en un teléfono móvil puede detectar el movimiento de la tierra (desplazamiento) causado por el movimiento de la falla en un terremoto mayor.

Utilizando crowdsourcing observaciones que usan teléfonos móviles los terremotos podrían ser detectados y analizados, y las alertas de terremotos programadas se podrían transmitir de nuevo a los participantes que lo usan. “Crowdsourcing alertas significa que la comunidad se beneficiará por los datos generados por la comunidad", dijo Sarah Minson, geofísica del USGS y autora principal del estudio. Minson fue una investigadora antes de recibir su doctorado en Caltech mientras que trabajo en este estudio.

Sistemas de EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) detectan el comienzo de un terremoto y emiten rápidamente advertencias a las comunidades y a los sistemas automáticos antes de que se siente el sacudimiento de la tierra donde se ubican.  Aunque gran parte de la población mundial es susceptible a terremotos dañinos, EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) están operando actualmente en sólo unas pocas regiones del mundo, incluyendo a Japón y México. "La mayoría del mundo no recibe las alertas de terremotos debido principalmente al costo de la construcción de las redes operativas científicas necesarias", dijo el geofísico del USGS y líder del proyecto Benjamin Brooks.

Los investigadores probaron la viabilidad de crowdsourcing del EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) con una simulación de un terremoto hipotético de magnitud 7,0 y con datos reales del terremoto de magnitud 9 en 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japón. Los resultados muestran que crowdsourcing del sistema EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) podría lograrse solamente con un pequeño porcentaje de personas en un área determinada que contribuye información de sus teléfonos móviles. Por ejemplo, si los teléfonos móviles de menos de 5.000 personas en una área grande metropolitana respondieran, el terremoto podría ser detectado y analizado suficientemente rápido como para emitir una advertencia a las áreas más lejanas antes del fuerte sacudimiento de la tierra. "La velocidad de una alerta electrónica viaja más rápido que el sacudimiento de un terremoto", explicó Craig Glennie, autor y profesor de la Universidad de Houston, Tejas.

Los autores encontraron que los sensores en los teléfonos móviles y dispositivos similares se podrían utilizar para emitir alertas de terremotos para los temblores de magnitud aproximadamente 7 o más grande, pero no para terremotos de menos intensidad, sin embargo para terremotos potencialmente dañinos. Un sistema integral de EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) requiere una densa red de instrumentos científicos. Un sistema EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) científica de alto grado, como el sistema ShakeAlert del Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos (USGS) que se está aplicando actualmente en la costa oeste de los Estados Unidos, será capaz de ayudar a disminuir el impacto de los terremotos en un amplio rango de magnitudes. Sin embargo, en muchas partes del mundo donde no hay recursos suficientes para construir y mantener redes científicas, pero el consumo electronicos son cada vez más comunes, crowdsourcing sistema EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) tiene un significado potencial.

"El sistema EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) de los EE.UU. se está construyendo en nuestras redes de alta calidad científica, pero enfoques de crowdsourcing pueden aumentar nuestro sistema y tienen un potencial real para hacer advertencias posibles en lugares que no cuentan con redes de alta calidad", dijo Douglas Given, coordinador de USGS de ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System, el sistema EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System). La Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional ya ha acordado financiar un proyecto piloto, en colaboración con el Chilean Centro Sismológico Nacional, para poner a prueba una sistema híbrido de EEW (Earthquake Early Warning System) piloto que consiste de sensores de teléfonos móviles autónomos y sensores de grado científico a lo largo de la costa chilena.

"El uso de los teléfonos móviles como una red de sensores distribuidos - y la visión estadística de que muchos instrumentos imprecisos pueden contribuir a la creación de medidas más precisas - tienen una amplia aplicación incluyendo una potencia grande para beneficiar a las comunidades donde no existe una red de instrumentos científico", dijo Bob Iannucci de la Universidad Carnegie Mellon, Silicon Valley en California.

"Hace treinta años tomó meses para montar una imagen crudo de las deformaciones de un terremoto. Esta nueva tecnología promete ofrecer una imagen casi instantánea con una resolución mucho mayor," dijo Thomas Heaton, coautor del estudio y profesor de Ingeniería de Sismología en Caltech.

"Los datos de crowdsourcing son menos precisos, pero para los terremotos mayores que causan grandes cambios en la superficie del suelo, contienen suficiente información para detectar que se ha producido un terremoto, la información necesaria para la sistema alerta temprana de terremotos", dijo el coautor del estudio Susan Owen de la NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Esta investigación fue una colaboración entre científicos del USGS, Instituto de Tecnología de California (Caltech), la Universidad de Houston, Laboratorio de la NASA’s Jet Propulsion, y la Universidad Carnegie Mellon-Silicon Valley, y se incluye el apoyo de la Fundación Gordon y Betty Moore. 

Caltech es una institución renombrada de investigación y educación mundial centrado en la ciencia y la ingeniería, donde profesores y estudiantes persiguen nuevos conocimientos acerca de nuestro mundo y la búsqueda de los tipos de avances audaces e innovadoras que transformarán nuestro futuro.

La Universidad de Houston es una universidad pública de investigación de alto grado designado por el Carnegie y reconocido por The Princeton Review como una de las mejores universidades de la nación para la educación de pregrado. 

Carnegie Mellon es una universidad privada, clasificada internacionalmente con programas en áreas que van desde la ciencia, la tecnología y los negocios al orden público, las humanidades y las artes.

Administrado por la NASA por el Instituto de Tecnología de California, el Laboratorio de Jet Propulsion tiene programas activos en ciencias de la tierra, astronomía basada en el espacio y el desarrollo tecnológico, y manejado por todo el mundo de la NASA Deep Space Network.

USGS ofrece la ciencia para un mundo cambiante. Visite USGS.gov, y síganos en Twitter @USGS, y nuestros otros canales de medios sociales.

Climate Change May Pose Substantial Future Risk to Sagebrush Habitat in Southwestern Wyoming

USGS Newsroom - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 10:00
Summary: Climate change may pose a substantial future risk for sagebrush habitat in southwestern Wyoming, and thus adversely affect the regional summer habitat and nesting areas of sage-grouse, according to a new study by the United States Geological Survey

Contact Information:

Catherine Puckett ( Phone: 352-377-2469 );



Sioux Falls, SD. — Climate change may pose a substantial future risk for sagebrush habitat in southwestern Wyoming, and thus adversely affect the regional summer habitat and nesting areas of sage-grouse, according to a new study by the United States Geological Survey.  

For the study, scientists used nearly 30 years of Earth observation data to analyze past climate patterns in 3,216 square miles (8,330square kilometers) of southwestern Wyoming to forecast sagebrush abundance in 2050. Wyoming is a stronghold for populations of greater sage-grouse, a species being considered for listing as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The species is dependent upon sagebrush habitat.

“Historic disturbances of fire, development and invasive species have altered the sagebrush landscape, but climate change may represent the habitat’s greatest future risk,” said Collin Homer, the USGS scientist who led the study. “Warming temperatures, combined with less snow and rain, will favor species other than sagebrush, as well as increase sagebrush habitat’s vulnerability to fire, insects, disease and invasive species.”

The authors noted that intact, healthy sagebrush systems increase sage-grouse resilience to negative effects of climate change whereas less intact and more marginal habitats decrease the species’ resilience.

Homer and his colleagues examined the impact of historical precipitation change on key components of sagebrush ecosystems from 1984 to 2011. These historical patterns, discerned from long-term records of the Landsat satellite series (a joint effort of USGS and NASA), were then combined with IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) precipitation scenarios to model and forecast the most likely changes in sagebrush habitat from 2006 to 2050.

Researchers found that projected precipitation patterns for 2050 resulted in decreasing amounts of sagebrush and other shrubs, grasses, and flowering plants (forbs), while increasing the amount of bare ground.  When these changes were translated to sage grouse habitat, researchers found this resulted in a potential loss of 12 percent of sage-grouse nesting habitat and about 4 percent of sage-grouse summer habitat by 2050.  Results also demonstrate the vulnerability of semi-arid lands, such as sagebrush habitat, to precipitation changes because of their already low soil moisture content.

This new research explores how to bring climate change results to a more localized scale, in this case units as small as a quarter of an acre. “Using Landsat and downscaled climate scenarios to enable future forecasts of greater sage-grouse habitat can provide critical information on a more local or regional scale for managers to help them better plan now for the future,” said Homer.

Greater sage-grouse occur in parts of 11 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces in western North America.  These birds rely on sagebrush ecosystems, which constitute the largest single North American shrub ecosystem and provide vital ecological, hydrological, biological, agricultural, and recreational ecosystem services. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is formally reviewing the status of greater sage-grouse to determine if the species is warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act.

Hamilton County Residents Invited to See Preliminary Flood Maps

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 08:54

ATLANTA–Newly revised digital flood insurance rate maps for Hamilton County, TN; will be available for residents to review at a public open house on April 13. Flood maps show the extent to which areas are at risk for flooding, and are used to help determine flood insurance and building requirements.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Hamilton County Residents Invited to See Preliminary Flood Maps

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 04/10/2015 - 08:54

ATLANTA–Newly revised digital flood insurance rate maps for Hamilton County, TN; will be available for residents to review at a public open house on April 13. Flood maps show the extent to which areas are at risk for flooding, and are used to help determine flood insurance and building requirements.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Mulberry Landing Boat Ramp to reopen April 18 following ramp improvements

DNREC News - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 15:29
FRANKFORD (April 9, 2015) – Due to weather-related construction delays, access to the Mulberry Landing Boat Ramp on Assawoman Wildlife Area near Bethany Beach will remain closed through Friday, April 17, DNREC’s Division of Fish & Wildlife announced today. Mulberry Landing Road has been periodically closed since late March during boat ramp improvements.

DNREC Division of Fish and Wildlife announces new recreational striped bass regulation to take effect on May 11

DNREC News - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 14:53
DOVER (April 9, 2015) – DNREC’s Division of Fish & Wildlife announced today that the new recreational striped bass regulation will be effective on May 11, 2015. The regulation change brings Delaware into compliance with the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission’s Atlantic Striped Bass Fisheries Management Plan, which has been amended to require a 25-percent reduction in both the recreational and commercial striped bass harvests in 2015.

Climate Adaptation and Resilience Stakeholder Workshop set for April 27 in Dover

DNREC News - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 14:37
DOVER (April 9, 2015) – The Governor’s Cabinet Committee on Climate and Resiliency (CCoCAR) will host a Climate Adaptation and Resilience Stakeholder Workshop from 10:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday, April 27 in the 700 Building’s Conference Center at Delaware Technical Community College’s Terry Campus, 100 Campus Drive, Dover, DE 19901.

FEMA to Evaluate Readiness of Pennsylvania

FEMA Region III News Releases - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 09:56

Emergency preparedness exercise scheduled for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant

PHILADELPHIA – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will evaluate a Biennial Radiological Emergency Preparedness Exercise at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant.  The exercise will occur during the week of April 13, 2015 to assess the ability of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to respond to an emergency at the nuclear facility.

Language English

FEMA to Evaluate Readiness of Pennsylvania

FEMA Press Releases - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 09:56

Emergency preparedness exercise scheduled for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant

PHILADELPHIA – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will evaluate a Biennial Radiological Emergency Preparedness Exercise at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant.  The exercise will occur during the week of April 13, 2015 to assess the ability of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to respond to an emergency at the nuclear facility.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

FEMA to Evaluate Readiness of Pennsylvania

FEMA Region III News Releases - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 09:56

Emergency preparedness exercise scheduled for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant

PHILADELPHIA – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will evaluate a Biennial Radiological Emergency Preparedness Exercise at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant.  The exercise will occur during the week of April 13, 2015 to assess the ability of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to respond to an emergency at the nuclear facility.

Language English

FEMA to Evaluate Readiness of Pennsylvania

FEMA Press Releases - Thu, 04/09/2015 - 09:56

Emergency preparedness exercise scheduled for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant

PHILADELPHIA – The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will evaluate a Biennial Radiological Emergency Preparedness Exercise at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant.  The exercise will occur during the week of April 13, 2015 to assess the ability of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to respond to an emergency at the nuclear facility.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Federal Aid Programs for the State of Connecticut Declaration

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 18:39

Following is a summary of key federal disaster aid programs that can be made available as needed and warranted under President Obama's disaster declaration issued for the State of Connecticut.

Assistance for the State and Affected Local and Tribal Governments Can Include as Required:

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Federal Aid Programs for the State of Connecticut Declaration

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 18:39

Following is a summary of key federal disaster aid programs that can be made available as needed and warranted under President Obama's disaster declaration issued for the State of Connecticut.

Assistance for the State and Affected Local and Tribal Governments Can Include as Required:

Language English
Categories: Federal News

President Declares Disaster for Connecticut

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 18:36

WASHINGTON, D.C. – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency announced that federal disaster aid has been made available to the State of Connecticut to supplement state, tribal and local recovery efforts in the area affected by a severe winter storm and snowstorm during the period of January 26-28, 2015. 

Language English
Categories: Federal News

President Declares Disaster for Connecticut

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 18:36

WASHINGTON, D.C. – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency announced that federal disaster aid has been made available to the State of Connecticut to supplement state, tribal and local recovery efforts in the area affected by a severe winter storm and snowstorm during the period of January 26-28, 2015. 

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Get Ready Now for Potential Severe Weather & Wildfires

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 17:10

DENTON, Texas – People living in parts of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas are urged to get ready now for potential severe weather that could strike over the next few days in the form of possible severe thunderstorms, hail, strong winds, flash flooding, tornadoes and wildfires.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Region 6 office continues to monitor the situation and stands ready to support state and local partners as needed and requested in any affected areas.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Get Ready Now for Potential Severe Weather & Wildfires

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 17:10

DENTON, Texas – People living in parts of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas are urged to get ready now for potential severe weather that could strike over the next few days in the form of possible severe thunderstorms, hail, strong winds, flash flooding, tornadoes and wildfires.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Region 6 office continues to monitor the situation and stands ready to support state and local partners as needed and requested in any affected areas.

Language English
Categories: Federal News

Delaware communities adopt higher standards for building in a floodplain

DNREC News - Wed, 04/08/2015 - 09:49
DOVER (April 8, 2015) – Communities across Delaware have adopted new regulations that set higher standards for building in a floodplain, or high risk flood zone. The regulations were adopted by communities as a result of the release of new Delaware Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and in conjunction with Senate Bill 64 that recommended more protective flood damage reduction standards for local governments to use.