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Federal News

Five Months Remain Before Montgomery County, TX Flood Maps Become Final

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/19/2014 - 12:03

DENTON, Texas –– New flood maps for specific areas of Montgomery County, Texas will become effective five months from now, on Monday, Aug. 18, 2014. Local and federal officials encourage everyone in the county to view the maps to understand their flood risk and consider buying flood insurance before then.

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Five Months Remain Before Travis County, TX Flood Maps Become Final

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/19/2014 - 12:00

DENTON, Texas –– New maps for specific areas of Travis County, Texas will become effective on Monday, Aug. 18, 2014. Local and federal officials encourage everyone in the affected area to view the maps to understand their flood risk and consider buying flood insurance before then.

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Invasive Burmese Pythons Are Good Navigators and Can Find Their Way Home

USGS Newsroom - Wed, 03/19/2014 - 08:00
Summary: Invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida are able to find their way home even when moved far away from their capture locations, a finding that has implications for the spread of the species Implications For Spread

Contact Information:

Christian Quintero ( Phone: 813-498-5019 ); Bill  Giduz ( Phone: 704-894-2244 );



Reporters: Photos, b-roll, and FAQs available online

Everglades National Park, Fla.— Invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida are able to find their way home even when moved far away from their capture locations, a finding that has implications for the spread of the species.

 A multi-organizational team of scientists found that when six Burmese pythons were relocated 13-22 miles from their capture locations, the snakes headed straight back home, navigating to within 3 miles of their original capture locations in Everglades National Park.

"Previous studies have shown that many snakes lack the ability to home, yet this study provides evidence that Burmese pythons are capable of homing after they have been displaced --- and they are able to do so at a scale previously undocumented for any snake species," said Shannon Pittman, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow at Davidson College in North Carolina. "Understanding this large-scale navigational ability is critical to understanding the ability of Burmese pythons to expand their geographic range," Pittman added.

To find your way home requires a map sense on the part of the animal, which allows the animal to determine its position in relation to a goal; and a compass sense, which requires access to a reliable compass to maintain orientation toward the goal. The relocated snakes moved faster and straighter than snakes that were not relocated, demonstrating that Burmese pythons have navigational map and compass senses.

The relocated snakes also appeared to use local cues from their release site to determine their position relative to home. Potential cues underlying the map sense in pythons may be olfactory or magnetic that change predictably through space. The compass aspect of their navigational ability could be accomplished through the use of magnetic, celestial, olfactory or polarized light cues, all of which generate a reliable compass sense.

"The snakes maintained their oriented movement over the course of a relatively long time, between 94 and 296 days," said Kristen Hart, a USGS researcher and study coauthor. "This indicates that not only do pythons keep their long-term movement goal in mind, but also that they were highly motivated to get back home."

These findings have implications for management and conservation of the species, the study authors emphasized.  Animals that are adept at navigating and homing are better able to exploit resources that are relatively far away, widely spaced or seasonally variable. These abilities also reduce risks associated with searching potentially hostile or unfamiliar areas because the dispersing snakes can always return to a safe location.  

"Understanding navigation in invasive species improves the ability to control populations and limit dispersion," said Hart.  "For example, the fine-tuned navigational capacity that the pythons exhibited may lower their risk when they move to and explore new areas."

This research is useful for resource managers because it has implications for python movement behavior at the edges of the invasion front where there is a need for containment, Pittman said.

"Invasive exotic reptiles continue to challenge agencies charged with protecting the health of south Florida ecosystems," said Everglades National Park Superintendent Dan Kimball.  "Continued research like this on the invasive exotic Burmese python is critical so that we can make better informed management decisions and move closer to containment of this species that has adapted to this environment."

The invasive Burmese python is an apex predator in the Everglades that became established in Florida several decades ago.  The largest snakes removed from the Everglades have exceeded 18 feet and 150 pounds.  Snakes of this size are capable of ingesting large prey like adult deer and alligators.

 "Homing of invasive Burmese pythons is South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes" by S.E. Pittman, K.M. Hart, M.S. Cherkiss, R.W. Snow, I. Fujisaki, B.J. Smith, F.J. Mazzotti, and M.E. Dorcas, is published in the journal Biology Letters.  The study can be accessed online.  

Disaster Fraud: Filing A False Claim With FEMA is a Felony

FEMA Press Releases - Tue, 03/18/2014 - 11:15

LINCROFT, N.J -- The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s primary mission is to help citizens and first responders prepare for, respond to and recover from all manner of disasters. To that end, FEMA takes the disbursement of necessary funds to the proper parties very seriously.

People who intentionally try to defraud the government are taking money away from those who truly need assistance. FEMA must ensure that taxpayer dollars go only to people who incurred legitimate losses. This may include prosecuting anyone who makes a fraudulent claim.

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Four Months Remain Before Flood Maps For Specific Areas of Dallas County, Texas Become Final

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 03/14/2014 - 18:18

DENTON, Texas –– New flood maps for specific areas of Dallas County will become effective on Monday, July 7, 2014. Local and federal officials encourage everyone to view the maps to understand their flood risk and consider purchasing flood insurance before then.

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March 16-22 Is Flood Safety Awareness Week

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 03/14/2014 - 18:15

DENTON, Texas –   Do you know what to do before, during and after a flood? Find out during Flood Safety Awareness Week, March 16-22. Emergency management experts will be reminding the public about the dangers related to flooding, ways to prepare for flood events and to prevent future damage from floods.

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FEMA and NOAA: Floods Happen Everywhere, Be Prepared

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 03/14/2014 - 16:41

During

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CRS Awards Presented To Two New Jersey Communities

FEMA Press Releases - Fri, 03/14/2014 - 14:38

LINCROFT, N.J. -- Two New Jersey municipalities were recognized for reducing their flood hazard risk through the FEMA Community Rating System in awards ceremonies on March 10, 2014.


The ceremony honoring Pompton Lakes was held at 25 Lenox Avenue, the town’s municipal building. Fairfield Township was honored in a separate ceremony at 230 Fairfield Avenue.

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Value of U.S. Mineral Production Decreased in 2013

USGS Newsroom - Fri, 03/14/2014 - 09:00
Summary: Last year, the estimated value of mineral production in the U.S. was $74.3 billion, a slight decrease from $75.8 billion in 2012

Contact Information:

Diane Noserale ( Phone: 703-648-4333 ); Joyce Ober ( Phone: 703-648-7717 );



Last year, the estimated value of mineral production in the U.S. was $74.3 billion, a slight decrease from $75.8 billion in 2012. According to the U.S. Geological Survey’s annual Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014 report, the 2013 decrease follows three consecutive years of increases. Net U.S. exports of mineral raw materials and old scrap contributed an additional $15.8 billion to the U.S. economy. 

"To put this in context, the $90.1 billion value of combined mined, exported, and recycled raw materials is more than five times greater than the 2013 combined net revenues of Internet titans: Amazon, Facebook, Google, and Yahoo.  This illustrates the fundamental importance of mineral resources to the nation’s economy, technology, and national security," said Larry Meinert, USGS Mineral Resources Program Coordinator. 

Minerals remain fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product at several levels, including mining, processing, and manufacturing finished products. The U.S. continues to rely on foreign sources for raw and processed mineral materials.

This annual USGS report is the original source of mineral production data for the world. It includes statistics on about 90 mineral commodities essential to the U.S. economy and national security, and addresses events, trends, and issues in the domestic and international minerals industries.

"Decision makers and policy makers in the private and public sectors rely on the Mineral Commodity Summaries and other USGS minerals information publications as unbiased sources of information to make business decisions and national policy," said Michael J. Magyar, Acting Director of the USGS National Minerals Information Center.

Production increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the U.S., and prices remained stable. Industrial mineral commodities include cement, clays, crushed stone, phosphate rock, salt, sand and gravel, and soda ash, which are used in industrial applications such as building and road construction and chemical manufacturing.

Production of most metals was relatively unchanged compared with that of 2012, but reduced prices resulted in an overall reduction in the value of metals produced. Domestically produced metals include copper, gold, iron, molybdenum, and zinc, which are used in a wide variety of products including consumer goods, electronic devices, industrial equipment, and transportation systems.

Domestic raw materials and domestically recycled materials were used to process mineral materials worth $665 billion. These mineral materials, including aluminum, brick, copper, fertilizers, and steel, and net imports of processed materials (worth about $24 billion) were, in turn, consumed by downstream industries with a value added of an estimated $2.4 trillion in 2013.

The construction industry began to show signs of improvement in 2012, and those trends continued in 2013, with increased production and consumption of cement, construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and gypsum, mineral commodities that are used almost exclusively in construction.

Mine production of 14 mineral commodities was worth more than $1 billion each in the U.S. in 2013. These were, in decreasing order of value, crushed stone, gold, copper, cement, construction sand and gravel, iron ore (shipped), molybdenum concentrates, phosphate rock, industrial sand and gravel, lime, soda ash, salt, zinc, and clays (all types).

In 2013, 12 states each produced more than $2 billion worth of nonfuel mineral commodities. These states were, in descending order of value—Nevada, Arizona, Minnesota, Florida, Texas, Alaska, Utah, California, Wyoming, Missouri, Michigan, and Colorado. The mineral production of these states accounted for 64% of the U.S. total output value.

Government agencies and the industrial and financial sectors use data from this and other USGS minerals reports to prepare legislation and key economic reports and to evaluate national defense mineral requirements.  USGS produces more detailed and updated data throughout the year in the USGS Minerals Yearbook and Mineral Industry Surveys.

The USGS Mineral Resources Program delivers unbiased science and information to understand mineral resource potential, production, consumption, and their interaction with the environment. The USGS National Minerals Information Center collects, analyzes, and disseminates current information on the supply of and the demand for minerals and materials in the U.S. and about 180 other countries.

The USGS report "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014" is available online. Hardcopies will be available later in the year from the Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents. For ordering information, please call (202) 512-1800 or (866) 512-1800 or go online.

For more information on this report and individual mineral commodities, please visit the USGS National Minerals Information Center.

FEMA Announces Next Meeting of National Advisory Council

FEMA Press Releases - Thu, 03/13/2014 - 16:21

WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be holding the next National Advisory Council (NAC) public meeting on Wednesday, March 19, 2014. The public meeting will be 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (EDT) at the FEMA Region III Office in Pennsylvania located at 615 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106.  

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FEMA Awards $1,398,396 Grant to Gallatin County: Hazard mitigation funds will be used to acquire 19 flood prone residential structures and raise seven homes

FEMA Press Releases - Thu, 03/13/2014 - 14:26

CHICAGO – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) today released $1,398,396 in Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funds to Gallatin County, Ill., to acquire and demolish 19 residential structures as well as raise seven homes above the base flood elevation in the Ohio River floodplain.

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Parasite in Live Asian Swamp Eels May Cause Human Illness

USGS Newsroom - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 16:52
Summary: Raw or undercooked Asian swamp eels could transmit a parasitic infection called gnathostomiasis to consumers

Contact Information:

Gail Moede Rogall ( Phone: 608-270-2438 ); Marisa Lubeck ( Phone: 303-202-4765 );



Raw or undercooked Asian swamp eels could transmit a parasitic infection called gnathostomiasis to consumers.

U.S. Geological Survey scientists found parasitic worms known as gnathostomes in Asian swamp eels collected between 2010 and 2012 from ethnic food markets and in Florida waters where the eel species is invasive. If eaten raw or undercooked, these eels could transmit their parasites to people, causing mild to serious disease. Severe cases of the infection can lead to blindness, paralysis or death. The USGS study was published today in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.

"Because live Asian swamp eels are commonly imported to the U.S., a person's dietary history and not just travel history should be considered when diagnosing gnathostomiasis," said Rebecca Cole, USGS scientist and lead author of the study.

Swamp eels transported live from Southeast Asia are sold in many urban ethnic food markets in the United States, and have been released into waters in Florida, Georgia and New Jersey. During the USGS study, scientists found gnathostome worms in eels collected from markets in Manhattan, N.Y., Atlanta, Ga., and Orlando, Fla., and in wild eels caught in peninsular Florida. All of the infected eels obtained from markets were imported from Bangladesh.

"Consumers should be aware of the risk of contracting gnathostomiasis from Asian swamp eels if they are eating raw or undercooked eels," Cole said.

Co-author and USGS scientist Leo Nico said it is notable that North American species of gnathostome parasites have infected wild, invasive Asian swamp eels in Florida. Although the North American species found in the wild Florida eels has not been reported as infecting humans, some scientists suggest that all Gnathostoma species can most likely infect people. According to the authors, it is also concerning that this parasite could be transmitted into native fish and wildlife populations and domestic cats or dogs.

Swamp eels are native to Southeast Asia, and wild-caught and domestically-reared eels are widely consumed as food by humans. The eels are a common source of human gnathostomiasis in many parts of Asia. Wild populations of these invasive eels were first found in Florida in 1997, likely the result of the live food trade or aquarium releases. There are five established populations in the continental U.S. — three in Florida, and one each in Georgia and New Jersey. Introduced swamp eels have also been present in Hawaii for many decades. 

The eels, which can reach lengths of about three feet, have the potential to become widespread in the U.S., impacting native aquatic and wetland species. The species has few known predators in the U.S., breathes air and can move across land, and can survive in both hot and cold climates.

For more information on USGS zoonotic, or animal-caused, illnesses, please visit the USGS National Wildlife Health Center website. FAQs on Asian swamp eels are available online.  

   

Federal Aid Programs for the State of South Carolina Declaration

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:36

Following is a summary of key federal disaster aid programs that can be made available as needed and warranted under President Obama's disaster declaration issued for the State of South Carolina.

Assistance for State and Affected Local Governments Can Include as Required:

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President Declares Disaster for South Carolina

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 12:34

WASHINGTON, D.C. – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency announced that federal disaster aid has been made available to the State of South Carolina to supplement state and local recovery efforts in the area affected by a severe winter storm during the period of February 10-14, 2014.

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Flooding Always a Potential Threat

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 01:42

DENVER - As winter comes to a close, communities look forward to the coming of spring and a return to the warm outdoors. But it’s also a time to be aware of the threat of Mother Nature, meaning severe storms and flooding.  Rapid snowmelt or a couple of inches of rainfall can create potential flooding.

FEMA Region VIII Preparedness and Mitigation experts have several recommendations to help people get ready for that threat. Region VIII includes Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.

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There’s More to NFIP than Just the Policy

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 01:38

DENVER – Flooding is the most common natural disaster in the United States.  Recent years have seen more frequent severe weather events, like Hurricane Sandy, which ravaged the East Coast.  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that provides flood insurance policies that provide millions of Americans their first line of defense against flooding.  But those flood insurance policies are only one component of the program and just part of the protection NFIP provides to individuals and the American public at large.

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Purchasing -- and MAINTAINING -- Flood Insurance is a Great Investment at Any Time

FEMA Press Releases - Wed, 03/12/2014 - 01:34

DENVER – There’s a hidden threat that strikes countless unprepared Americans each year – flooding.  Unlike fire, wind, hail or most other perils, flood damage is not covered by a homeowners’ policy.  An uninsured flood loss can undo a lifetime’s worth of effort and create a mountain of bills.  Fortunately, a National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) policy provides the defense against such losses and can ensure that a flood doesn’t bring financial ruin.

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Asian Carp Eggs Found Near Lynxville, Wisc.

USGS Newsroom - Tue, 03/11/2014 - 15:14
Summary: Asian carp eggs, including late-stage embryos nearly ready to hatch from the egg, were recently identified in samples collected by U.S. Geological Survey scientists in 2013 from the Upper Mississippi River as far north as Lynxville, Wisc

Contact Information:

Cindy Kolar ( Phone: 571-641-7966 ); Marisa Lubeck ( Phone: work: 303-202-4765 cell:303-526-6694 );



Asian carp eggs, including late-stage embryos nearly ready to hatch from the egg, were recently identified in samples collected by U.S. Geological Survey scientists in 2013 from the Upper Mississippi River as far north as Lynxville, Wisc.

"This discovery means that Asian carp spawned much farther north in the Mississippi than previously recorded," said Leon Carl, USGS Midwest Regional Director. "The presence of eggs in the samples indicates that spawning occurred, but we do not know if eggs hatched and survived or whether future spawning events would result in live fish."

The Asian carp eggs and late-stage embryos were discovered two weeks ago while processing samples that were collected in mid-May and mid-June, 2013. The samples were taken as part of a larger research project designed to identify Asian carp spawning habitats. The eggs and late-stage embryos were 250 river miles upstream of previously known reproductive populations in the river. Spawning would have occurred upstream from this site.

Once the scientists visually identified the eggs, they examined other samples taken from the Mississippi River and found Asian carp eggs at seven locations between Pool 19 near Keokuk, Iowa, and Pool 9 of the main channel of the Upper Mississippi River near Lynxville. Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin border the navigation pools where these samples were collected.

The eggs and late-stage embryos were identified as bigheaded carps — either bighead carp or silver carp — through visual analyses of specific features of the eggs and embryos. It is also possible that some eggs could be from grass carp, although no eggs were visually identified as such. The USGS attempted genetic analyses to definitively determine which species of Asian carp the eggs belong to, but the results were inconclusive. Additional steps are being completed to attempt genetic confirmation, and those results are expected in one to two weeks.

The research project that collected these eggs is being coordinated by the USGS in collaboration with Western Illinois University. Scientists plan to collect additional samples from the Mississippi River in 2014 as part of their on-going research project.

"Invasive Asian carp could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts to the Upper Mississippi River if they become established," Carl said. "Further research will help us to better understand their habitat requirements and inform integrated control efforts."  

For more information on Asian carp research, please visit the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee (ACRCC) website. The ACRCC is a partnership of federal and state agencies, municipalities and other groups, led by the White House Council on Environmental Quality. 

Amazon Carbon Dynamics: Understanding the Photosynthesis-Climate Link

USGS Newsroom - Tue, 03/11/2014 - 13:00
Summary: FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. — Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, the University of Arizona, and the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia) are collaborating with scientists in Brazil on a three-year research project that investigates a basic yet unanswered question in Earth-system and global carbon-cycle science: What controls the response of photosynthesis in Amazon tropical forests to seasonal variations in climate?

Contact Information:

Leslie Gordon ( Phone: 650-329-4006 );



FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. — Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, the University of Arizona, and the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia) are collaborating with scientists in Brazil on a three-year research project that investigates a basic yet unanswered question in Earth-system and global carbon-cycle science: What controls the response of photosynthesis in Amazon tropical forests to seasonal variations in climate?

Results of the study will help improve the reliability of global climate forecasts by guiding improvements in the treatment of tropical forest photosynthesis and related water-cycle processes in Earth-system models.

This question of photosynthesis' response to climate variations, despite its seeming simplicity, is the subject of an ongoing scientific puzzle that has so far been remarkably difficult to answer with confidence.  For example, seasonal patterns of photosynthesis simulated by several state-of-the-art, numerical models of the Earth system, and seasonal patterns of vegetation "greenness" as inferred from observations by Earth-observing satellites, disagree with patterns seen in measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at monitoring sites in the central Amazon.

"Improving our understanding of how a changing climate affects the fundamental processes that control absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by tropical forests, can help us improve Earth system models, and help improve the reliability of global climate forecasts," said USGS geographer and project leader, Dennis Dye.

The project is designed to resolve disagreements between the computer models, and actual forest measurements by developing new knowledge and deeper understanding of seasonal climate, photosynthesis, and water relationships in Amazon tropical forests, through the use of advanced remote-sensing techniques and field observations. The project focuses on existing tropical forest study sites near Manaus and Santarem, Brazil.  Scientists will measure physiological properties of leaves and trees, and water flow, and use innovative remote-sensing instruments to monitor the light-reflecting properties of the forest and the effects of clouds and smoke on solar radiation. Scientists will also model the three-dimensional variation in photosynthesis in various forest structures and light levels.

"The ability to monitor the ecohydrologic function of the rainforest at a range of scales – from leaf, to tree, to stand levels – will offer an unprecedented observational support for testing hypotheses and developing new types of forest representation in land-surface models," said University of Michigan Hydrologist Valeriy Ivanov.

The project is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Climate and Environmental Sciences Division, GOAmazon campaign.

"Ultra Marathon Champion" Bird May Plan Flights Based on Weather Across Pacific

USGS Newsroom - Tue, 03/11/2014 - 13:00
Summary: A recent U.S. Geological Survey-led study of the bar-tailed godwit, a shorebird known famously as the ultimate marathon champion of bird flight, suggests that these birds can sense broad weather patterns and optimally time their long, nonstop, transoceanic migrations to destinations thousands of miles away

Contact Information:

Robert  Gill ( Phone: 907-947-0379 ); David Douglas ( Phone: 907-364-1576 ); Colleen Handel ( Phone: 907-786-7181 );



ANCHORAGE, Alaska —A recent U.S. Geological Survey-led study of the bar-tailed godwit, a shorebird known famously as the ultimate marathon champion of bird flight, suggests that these birds can sense broad weather patterns and optimally time their long, nonstop, transoceanic migrations to destinations thousands of miles away. 

Like airplane pilots examining weather charts for the course ahead, godwits awaiting to take flight ultimately selected dates of departure that corresponded to the best atmospheric wind conditions possible within a two-week window.  Remarkably, not only were the conditions optimal for take-off, but they almost always provided the best possible conditions for the birds' entire transoceanic flights.

"We think that these behaviors represent a previously unknown cognitive ability that allows bar-tailed godwits to assess changes in weather conditions across widely separated atmospheric regions in different parts of the Pacific Ocean and to time their migration patterns accordingly," said Robert Gill, Jr., an Emeritus Scientist with the USGS and lead author of the study.

These findings are part of a new scientific publication by collaborators from the USGS, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of Groningen and the NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research.  The researchers used detailed information on individuals tracked by satellite transmitters, along with data on wind conditions across the Pacific Ocean, to investigate migration patterns along the 18,000 mile annual route of the bar-tailed godwit.  Their study determined that bar-tailed godwits are able to make efficient decisions about when and where to fly during nonstop flights of up to 10 days long between wintering areas in New Zealand and breeding areas in Alaska.

"There are a number of broad-scale prevailing wind patterns through the Pacific Ocean, and the godwits take advantage of these winds to facilitate successful migration between their wintering and breeding areas.  These wind patterns appear to be teleconnected, or linked, across broad expanses of the Pacific Ocean," said Gill.  "Just like airline pilots, birds occasionally have to abort flights or change course drastically when they encounter severe, unexpected weather," noted David Douglas, Research Wildlife Biologist, who like Gill, works out of the USGS Alaska Science Center and is co-author of the study. 

The researchers observed two birds that made abrupt course changes when they encountered rapidly developing cyclones along their flight paths.  In one case, the prolonged flight change resulted in the bird not breeding that season, likely due to energy spent fighting the headwinds of the storm.

The report on this study, entitled "Hemispheric-scale wind selection facilitates bar-tailed godwit circum-migration of the Pacific," was recently published in the journal Animal Behaviour.

Photos of bar-tailed godwits, their migration and habitats, are available from the USGS online